Johan Galtung pp 173-178 | Cite as

Positive and Negative Peace

  • Johan GaltungEmail author
  • Dietrich Fischer
Part of the SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice book series (BRIEFSPIONEER, volume 5)


Any concept of peace includes the absence of direct violence between states, engaged in by military and others in general, and of massive killing of categories of humans in particular. But peace would be a strange concept if it does not include relations between genders, races, classes and families, and does not also include absence of structural violence, the non-intended slow, massive suffering caused by economic and political structures in the form of massive exploitation and repression. And the absence of the cultural violence that legitimizes direct and-or structural violence.


Main Diagonal Golden Rule Structural Violence Massive Killing Negative Coupling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Galtung J (2008) “Towards a Grand Theory of Negative and Positive Peace: Peace, Security and Conviviality”, in: Murakami, Yoichiro; Schoenbaum, Thomas J. (Eds.): A Grand Design for Peace and Reconciliation: Achieving Kyosei in East Asia (Cheltenham, UK, and North Hampton, Massachusetts, USA: Edward Elgar): 90–106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VersonnexFrance
  2. 2.Galtung Institute for Peace Theory and PracticeGrenzach-WyhlenGermany
  3. 3.BaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations