Second-order macroscopic models and most car-following models are able to reproduce traffic waves or other observed instabilities of traffic flow. After an intuitive introduction, we define the relevant instability concepts: Local instability, convective string and flow instability, and absolute string and flow instability. We give general analytic criteria for the occurrence of these instabilities for microscopic and macroscopic models. The formulation is more comprehensive than the various accounts in the specialized literature and can be evaluated for any traffic flow model with a well-defined acceleration function. The stability criteria allow us to characterize the influencing factors of traffic flow instabilities and answer the question of if, and in which way, the driving behavior (or new driver-assistance systems) influence traffic flow stability.
Traffic Flow Congested Traffic Convective Instability Macroscopic Model Absolute Instability
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