Microscopic models describe traffic flow dynamics in terms of single vehicles. The mathematical formulations include car-following models, the topic of this and the next two chapters, and cellular automata, which are described in Chap. 13. This chapter begins with a discussion of general principles that apply to all microscopic models of traffic flow, such as the microscopic steady-state equilibrium, the micro-macro transition to the fundamental diagram, and heterogeneous traffic. The next sections discuss Newell’s car-following model and the Optimal Velocity Model (and variants thereof) as the generic examples of simple car-following models.
Traffic Flow Traffic Light Speed Difference Optimal Velocity Speed Function
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