ConsScale FPS: Cognitive Integration for Improved Believability in Computer Game Bots

  • Raúl ArrabalesEmail author
  • Agapito Ledezma
  • Araceli Sanchis


ConsScale is a framework for the characterization and measurement of the level of cognitive development in artificial agents. The scale is inspired by an evolutionary perspective of the development of consciousness in biological organisms. In this context, consciousness is considered as an evolutionary advantage that provides the individual with a highly adaptive super-function, i.e. effective synergistic integration of a number of cognitive functions. ConsScale FPS is a specific instantiation of the scale aimed at describing the hierarchical structure of the cognitive skills required by a bot in the domain of a first-person shooter (FPS) video game. Using ConsScale FPS as reference framework, this work proposes specific strategies for the design of more believable bots. The concept of cognitive dependency is introduced and cognitive abilities implemented in state of the art bots are analyzed from the point of view of effective cognitive integration. Finally, in light of the cognitive development of current bots, particular improvements are suggested towards the design of more human-like bots.


Cognitive Development Cognitive Skill Artificial Agent Human Observer Cognitive Profile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We wish to thank Igor Karpov, Jacob Schrum, and Risto Miikulainen from the University of Texas, Austin for providing feedback about the \({UT{\char 94}2}\) bot; Akihiro Kojima, Daichi Hirono, Takumi Sato, Seiji Murakami, and Ruck Thawonmas from Ritsumeikan University, Japan for providing feedback about the ICE-2010 bot; and Casey Rosenthal and Clare Bates Congdon from the University of Southern Maine for providing feedback about the Discordia bot. We are also indebted to Philip Hingston, Mike Preuss, and Simon Lucas for their feedback about the BotPrize judging protocol.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raúl Arrabales
    • 1
    Email author
  • Agapito Ledezma
    • 1
  • Araceli Sanchis
    • 1
  1. 1.Carlos III University of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30LeganésSpain

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