A Machine Consciousness Approach to the Design of Human-Like Bots

  • Raúl ArrabalesEmail author
  • Jorge Muñoz
  • Agapito Ledezma
  • German Gutierrez
  • Araceli Sanchis


This chapter introduces Machine Consciousness as a new research field applied to the development of human-like behaviour of non-player characters (NPCs) in video games. Key aspects, advantages, and challenges of this young research area are discussed using the cognitive architecture CERA-CRANIUM as an illustrative example of an autonomous control system inspired by cognitive theories of human consciousness. Additionally, other cognitive architectures used in video games are also analyzed. The bot codenamed CC-Bot2, winner of the 2K BotPrize 2010 competition and based on the CERA-CRANIUM cognitive architecture, is also described in this chapter. Specifically, the particular way in which CC-Bot2 processes the sensory-motor information and generates sequences of adaptive human-like actions is discussed. We also analyze the main differences between CC-Bot2 and other bots, focusing on the key features that allowed CC-Bot2 to win first place in the competition. Finally, we conclude by describing the main lines of work for future CC-Bot implementations and pointing out major conclusions about the application of Machine Consciousness to the design of believable bots.


Video Game Control Architecture Perceptual Information Cognitive Architecture Human Player 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are indebted to the reviewers and the editor of the book for their helpful comments and critique.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raúl Arrabales
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jorge Muñoz
    • 1
  • Agapito Ledezma
    • 1
  • German Gutierrez
    • 1
  • Araceli Sanchis
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30LeganésSpain

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