Quantum Dot Spintronics: Fundamentals and Applications

  • Arne Ludwig
  • Björn Sothmann
  • Henning Höpfner
  • Nils C. Gerhardt
  • Jörg Nannen
  • Tilmar  Kümmell
  • Jürgen König
  • Martin R. Hofmann
  • Gerd Bacher
  • Andreas D. Wieck
Chapter
Part of the Springer Tracts in Modern Physics book series (STMP, volume 246)

Abstract

Spintronics is a generalization of electronics: Electronics means charge carrier transport, spintronics adds to this transport the supplementary degree of freedom spin which has been neglected since the roots of electronics. In this sense, spintronics is opening a new dimension of functional devices which is even more mighty than it may look at a first glance: The electron spin and its orientation is a pure quantum mechanical phenomenon which leads in its complexity to much more information coding depth and combinatorial operations than the storage and transport of charges in classical electronics. That is why the quantum bit (qubit) concept has been introduced by Schumacher [1].

Notes

Acknowledgments

All authors gratefully acknowledge the fruitful cooperation under the direction of Hartmut Zabel within the SFB491 and the financial support via the DFG. We appreciated the collaboration with Ellen Schuster, Frank Stromberg, Heiko Wende and Werner Keune from the Universität Duisburg-Essen for fruitful discussions and regarding the growth of the ferromagnetic metal structures with perpendicular anisotropy, Dirk Reuter for his expert help in MBE, Astrid Ludwig, Nicole Stracke and Nadine Viteritti for expert sample preparation. We gratefully acknowledge the expert experimental assistance of Jie Huang and Sven Eliasson. We acknowledge financial support by the RUB Research School, the DFH/UFA DFDK-05-06, the SPP 1285, and the BMBF QuaHL-Rep 01BQ1035.

References

  1. 1.
    B. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. A 51(4), 2738 (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Fabian, S. Das Sarma, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76(2), 323 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Hövel, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, F.Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, E. Schuster, H. Wende, W. Keune, Physica Status Solidi (C) 6(2), 436 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Schuster, R.A. Brand, F. Stromberg, F.Y. Lo, A. Ludwig, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, S. Hövel, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, H. Wende, W. Keune, J. Appl. Phys 108(6), 063902 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Zhu, M. Ramsteiner, H. Kostial, M. Wassermeier, H.P. Schönherr, K. Ploog, Phys Rev. Lett. 87(1), 1 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.T. Hanbicki, B.T. Jonker, G. Itskos, G. Kioseoglou, A. Petrou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1240 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O.M.J. van ’t Erve, G. Kioseoglou, A.T. Hanbicki, C.H. Li, B.T. Jonker, R. Mallory, M. Yasar, A. Petrou, Applied Physics Letters 84(21), 4334 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Jiang, R. Wang, R. Shelby, R. Macfarlane, S. Bank, J. Harris, S. Parkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 1 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Zhao, D. Talbayev, G. Lüpke, A. Hanbicki, C. Li, M. van’t Erve, G. Kioseoglou, B. Jonker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 1 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Adelmann, J.L. Hilton, B.D. Schultz, S. McKernan, C.J. Palmstrom, X. Lou, H.S. Chiang, Pa Crowell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112511 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    N.C. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, C. Brenner, M.R. Hofmann, F.Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, K. Westerholt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 032502 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Sinsarp, T. Manago, F. Takano, H. Akinaga, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L4 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Hövel, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, F.Y. Lo, A. Ludwig, D. Reuter, A.D.Wieck, E. Schuster, H. Wende, W. Keune, O. Petracic, K. Westerholt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021117(2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Hövel, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, F.Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, K. Westerholt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 242102 (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Schuster, W. Keune, F.Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, K. Westerholt, Superlattices and Microstructures 37(5), 313 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Ludwig, R. Roescu, A.K. Rai, K. Trunov, F. Stromberg, M. Li, H. Soldat, A. Ebbing, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, H. Wende, W. Keune, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, Journal of Crystal Growth 323, 376 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Son, J. Cho, J.W. Park, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2619 (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E.U. Schuster, Universität Duisburg-Essen (Dissertation) (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Cherifi, C. Dufour, M. Piecuch, A. Bruson, P. Bauer, G. Marchal, P. Mangin, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 93, 609 (1991)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Mibu, N. Hosoito, T. Shinjo, Hyperfine Interactions 68, 341 (1991)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Scholz, R.A. Brand, W. Keune, Phys. Rev. B 50, 2537 (1994)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Tappert, S. Neumann, R.A. Brand, W. Keune, F. Klose, H. Maletta, Europhys. Lett. 46, 238 (1999)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Höpfner, M. Li, A. Ludwig, A. Ludwig, F. Stromberg, H. Wende, W. Keune, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, in, Proceedings of SPIE (2012), pp. 8260–09Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Rochford, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, ed. by R.A. Meyers (Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    N.C. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, C. Brenner, M.R. Hofmann, F.Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, S. Halm, G. Bacher, K. Westerholt, J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073907 (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Z. Yu, M. Flatté, Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 1 (2002)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Soldat, M. Li, N.C. Gerhardt, M.R. Hofmann, A. Ludwig, A. Ebbing, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, F. Stromberg, W. Keune, H. Wende, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051102 (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Saikin, M. Shen, M.C. Cheng, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(5), 1535 (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    V.A. Marushchak, M.N. Stepanova, A.N. Titkov, J. Exp. Theore. Phys. Lett. 37(7), 400 (1983)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Nakaoka, T. Saito, Y. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235337 (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Ghali, T. Kümmel, J. Wenisch, K. Brunner, G. Bacher, Appl. Phys. Lett 93, 073107 (2008)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Ghali, R. Arians, T. Kümmel, G. Bacher, J. Wenisch, S. Mahapatra, K. Brunner, Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 093110 (2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Schmidt, C. Gould, P. Grabs, A. Lunde, G. Richter, A. Slobodskyy, L. Molenkamp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 226602 (2004)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.M. Stroud, A.T. Hanbicki, Y.D. Park, G. Kioseoglou, A.G. Petukhov, B.T. Jonker, G. Itskos, A. Petrou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 166602 (2002)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. Jiang, R. Wang, R. Shelby, R. MacFarlane, S. Bank, J. Harris, S. Parkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 056601 (2005)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Hetterich, W. Löffler, J. Fallert, N. Höpcke, H. Burger, T. Passow, S. Li, B. Daniel, B. Ramadout, J. Lupaca-Schomber, J. Hetterich, D. Litvinov, D. Gerthsen, C. Klingshirn, K. H., phys. stat. sol. (b) 243, 3812(2006).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Nannen, T. Kümmell, M. Bartsch, K. Brunner, G. Bacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173108 (2010)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. Asshoff, W. Öffler, J. Zimmer, H. Füser, H. Flügge, H. Kalt, M. Hetterich. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 202105 (2009)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R.J. Warburton, C. Schäflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J.M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, Nature 405, 926 (2000)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Baier, F. Findeis, A. Zrenner, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, Phys. Rev. B 64, 195326 (2001)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. Findeis, M. Baier, A. Zrenner, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, U. Hohenester, E. Molinari, Phys. Rev. B 64, 121309(R) (2001).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Seidl, M. Kroner, P.A. Dalgarno, A. Högele, J.M. Smith, M. Ediger, B.D. Gerardot, J.M. Garcia, P.M. Petroff, K. Karrai, R.J. Warburton, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195339 (2005)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Bayer, G. Ortner, O. Stern, A. Kuther, A.A. Gorbunov, A. Forchel, P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, K. Hinzer, T.L. Reinecke, S.N. Walck, J.P. Reithmaier, F. Klopf, S. F. Phys. Rev. B 65, 195315 (2002)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.M. Smith, P.A. Dalgarno, R.J. Warburton, A.O. Govorov, K. Karrai, B.D. Gerardot, P.M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197402 (2005)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    D. Heiss, V. Jovanov, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, J.J. Finley, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235442 (2008)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. König, H. Schoeller, G. Schön, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(10), 1715 (1996)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. König, J. Schmid, H. Schoeller, G. Schön, Phys. Rev. B 54(23), 16820 (1996)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Braun, J. König, J. Martinek, Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195345 (2004)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Braun, J. König, J. Martinek, Europhys. Lett. 72(2), 294 (2005)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    I. Weymann, J. Barnaś, J. König, J. Martinek, G. Schön, Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 113301 (2005)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    I. Weymann, J. König, J. Martinek, J. Barnaś, G. Schön, Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115334 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Braun, J. König, J. Martinek, Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075328 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. Hornberger, S. Joller, G. Begemann, A. Donarini, M. Grifoni, Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245313 (2008)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. Lindebaum, D. Urban, J. König, Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 245303 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    B. Sothmann, D. Futterer, M. Governale, J. König, Phys. Rev. B 82(9), 094514 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    B. Sothmann, J. König, Phys. Rev. B 82(24), 245319 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    B. Sothmann, J. König, A. Kadigrobov, Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205314 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. Sothmann, J. König, New J. Phys. 12(8), 083028 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Koch, F. von Oppen, A.V. Andreev, Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205438 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Esposito, K. Lindenberg, C. van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 130602 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    R. Sánchez, M. Büttiker, Phys. Rev. B 83(8), 085428 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    B. Sothmann, M. Büttiker, Europhys. Lett. 99(2), 27001 (2012)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A.J. Heinrich, J.A. Gupta, C.P. Lutz, D.M. Eigler, Science 306(5695),466 (2004).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    C.F. Hirjibehedin, C.P. Lutz, A.J. Heinrich, Science 312(5776), 1021 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    F. Meier, L. Zhou, J. Wiebe, R. Wiesendanger, Science 320(5872), 82 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    C.F. Hirjibehedin, C. Lin, A.F. Otte, M. Ternes, C.P. Lutz, B.A. Jones, A.J. Heinrich, Science 317(5842), 1199 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    A.F. Otte, M. Ternes, K. von Bergmann, S. Loth, H. Brune, C.P. Lutz, C.F. Hirjibehedin, A.J. Heinrich, Nat. Phys. 4(11), 847 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    A.F. Otte, M. Ternes, S. Loth, C.P. Lutz, C.F. Hirjibehedin, A.J. Heinrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 107203 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. Loth, K. von Bergmann, M. Ternes, A.F. Otte, C.P. Lutz, A.J. Heinrich, Nat. Phys. 6(5), 340 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. Fernández-Rossier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 256802 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Fransson, Nano Lett. 9(6), 2414 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 050801 (2009)MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    N. Lorente, J. Gauyacq, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(17), 176601 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    F. Delgado, J.J. Palacios, J. Fernández-Rossier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 026601 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    J. Lehmann, D. Loss, Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045328 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Ludwig
    • 1
  • Björn Sothmann
    • 2
  • Henning Höpfner
    • 3
  • Nils C. Gerhardt
    • 3
  • Jörg Nannen
    • 4
  • Tilmar  Kümmell
    • 4
  • Jürgen König
    • 5
  • Martin R. Hofmann
    • 3
  • Gerd Bacher
    • 4
  • Andreas D. Wieck
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Angewandte FestkörperphysikRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Département de Physique ThéoriqueUniversité de GenèveSwitzerland
  3. 3.Lehrstuhl für Photonik und Terahertztechnologie Ruhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  4. 4.Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik and CeNIDEUniversität Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  5. 5.Theoretische Physik Universität Duisburg-Essen and CeNIDEDuisburgGermany

Personalised recommendations