Article 50 [Voluntary Withdrawal from the Union]

  • Hermann-Josef Blanke
  • Stelio Mangiameli
Chapter

Abstract

Neither the EC Treaty nor the TEU contained an express provision allowing the MS the right to unilateral withdrawal . The reason for the absence of a relevant provision in an original EEC Treaty is not known, since the travaux préparatoires were not published. Three explanations were suggested.

Keywords

European Council Legal Order Vienna Convention Constitutional Court Constitutional Treaty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Table of Cases

  1. ECJ 13.11.1964, Joined Cases 90/63, 91/63, Commission v Luxembourg and Belgium, ECR 625 [cit. in para 18]Google Scholar
  2. ECJ 22.06.1965, 9/65, Acciaierie San Michele SpA v High Authority of the ECSC, ECR 27 [cit. in para 25]Google Scholar
  3. ECJ 14.12.1971, 7/71, Commission v France, ECR 1003 [cit. in para 11]Google Scholar
  4. ECJ 14.12.1991, Opinion 1/91, Draft Treaty on a European Economic Area, ECR I-6079 [cit. in para 11]Google Scholar
  5. ECJ 10.04.1992, Opinion 1/92, Draft Treaty on a European Economic Area, ECR I-2821 [cit. in para 11]Google Scholar
  6. ECJ 16.06.1998, C-162/92, Racke GmbH and Co. v Hauptzollamt Mainz, N/A [cit. in para 20]Google Scholar

References

  1. Athanassiou, P. (2009). Withdrawal and expulsion from the EU and EMU: Some reflections. European Central Bank Legal Working Papers, 10. http://ssrn.com/abstract_id=1517760. Accessed 30 June 2012.
  2. Bast, J. (2005). The constitutional treaty as a reflexive constitution. German Law Journal, 6(11), 1433–1452.Google Scholar
  3. Bruha, T., & Nowak, C. (2004). Recht auf Austritt aus der Europäischen Union? Archiv des Völkerrechts, 42(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
  4. Christakis, T. (1999). Le droit à l’autodétermination en dehors des situations de décolonisation. Paris: La Documentation Française.Google Scholar
  5. Constantinesco, L.-J. (1977). Das Recht der Europäischen Gemeinschaften. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  6. Corten, O., & Klein, P. (2006). Les conventions de Vienne sur les droit des traités. Commentaire article par article. Bruxelles: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  7. Crawford, J. (1997). State practice and international law in relation to unilateral secession. Report to Government of Canada concerning unilateral secession by Quebec, 19 February 1997 (reprinted in A. F. Bayefsky (2000). Self-determination in international law: Quebec and lessons learned. The Hague: Kluwer Law International).Google Scholar
  8. Crawford, J. (2006). The creation of states in international law (2nd ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  9. Dock, M. C. (1994). Le retrait des États membres des organisations internationales de la famille des Nations Unies. Annuaire français de droit international XL, 106 et seqq.Google Scholar
  10. Dougan, M. (2003). The Convention’s Draft Constitutional Treaty: A ‘Tidying-Up Exercise’ that needs some tidying-up of its own. Online Paper 27/03. The Federal Trust for Education and Research. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=507782. Accessed 30 June 2012.
  11. Engle, E. (2006/2007). Theseus’s Ship of State: Confederated Europa between the Scylla of Mere Alliance and the Charybdis of Unitary Federalism. Florida Coastal Law Review, 8, 27–52.Google Scholar
  12. Everling, U. (1983). Sind die Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Gemeinschaft noch Herren der Verträge? Zum Verhältnis von Europäischem Gemeinschaftsrecht und Völkerrecht. In R. Bernhardt et al. (Eds.), Völkerrecht als Rechtsordnung, internationale Gerichtsbarkeit, Menschenrechte: Festschrift für Hermann Mosler, p. 172 et seqq. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Folz, H. P. (2001). Austritt und Ausschluss aus der Europäischen Union, Schriften des Österreichischen Völkerrechtstages. In K. Ginther, et al. (Eds.), Völker- und Europarecht. Wien: Verlag Österreich.Google Scholar
  14. Friel, R. J. (2004). Providing a constitutional framework for withdrawal from the EU: Article 59 of the Draft European Constitution. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 53(2), 407–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harbo, F. (2008). Secession right – An anti-federal principle? Comparative study of federal states and the EU. Journal of Politics and Law, 1(3), 132–148.Google Scholar
  16. Harnhoff, F. (1983). Greenland’s withdrawal from the European Communities. Common Market Law Review, 20(4), 13–33.Google Scholar
  17. Herbst, J. (2005). Observations on the right to withdraw from the European Union: Who are the “Masters of the Treaties?”. German Law Journal, 6(11), 1755–1760.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, J. A. (1982). The European Economic Community: The right of Member State withdrawal. Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, 12, 335–357.Google Scholar
  19. Hilf, M. (1997). Artikel 240 EGV. In H. von der Groeben, J. Thiesing, & C. Ehlermann (Eds.), Kommentar zum EU/EG-Vertrag. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  20. Hofmeister, H. (2010). ‘Should I Stay or Should I Go?’ – A critical analysis of the right to withdraw from the EU. European Law Journal, 16(5), 589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. House of Commons. (2004). Treaty establishing A Constitution for Europe, Part I. Research Paper 04/66. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons/lib/research/rp2004/rp04-066.pdf. Accessed 30 June 2012.
  22. Ipsen, H. P. (1972). Europäisches Gemeinschaftsrecht. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
  23. Isaac, G. (1998). Droit communautaire général. Paris: Masson.Google Scholar
  24. Kelsen, H. (1952). Principles of International Law. New York: Rinehart.Google Scholar
  25. Kielhorn, M. (2000). The Constitution for Europe. The point of no return? Münster: Lit-Verlag.Google Scholar
  26. Klabbers, J. (2002). An introduction to international institutional law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krämer, H. R. (1983). Greenland’s European Community (EC-) referendum, background and consequences. German Yearbook of International Law, 25, 273–289.Google Scholar
  28. Lang, J. T. (1966). The common market and common law. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Lenaerts, K., & van Nuffel, P. (2005). Constitutional law of the European Union. London: Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
  30. Manin, P. (1999). Les Communautés européennes. L’ Union européenne. Droit institutionnel (5th ed.). Paris: Pédone.Google Scholar
  31. Morrison, F. L. (2007). Confederations of states. In R. Wolfrum (Ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Online edition. www.mpepil.com. Updated May 2007.
  32. Oppenheim, L., & Lauterpacht, H. (1948). International Law (3rd ed.). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  33. Oppenheimer, A. (Ed.). (1994). The relationship between European Community Law and national law: Cases (Vol. 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Pellet, A. (1994). Les fondements juridiques internationaux du droit communautaire. Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law, 5(2), 193–271.Google Scholar
  35. Pernice, I. (2008/2009). The Treaty of Lisbon: Multilevel constitutionalism in action. Columbia Journal of European Law, 15(3), 349–408.Google Scholar
  36. Rousseau, C. (1974). Droit international public (Vol. II). Paris: Sirey.Google Scholar
  37. Rudolf, W. (2007). Federal states. In R. Wolfrum (Ed.), Max Planck Encyclopaedia of Public International Law. Online edition. www.mpepil.com. Updated August 2007.
  38. Schermers, H. G., & Blokker, N. M. (2003). International institutional law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Schmitz, T. (2001). Integration in der Supranationalen Union. Das europäische Organisationsmodell einer prozeßhaften geo-regionalen Integration und seine rechtlichen und staatstheoretischen Implikationen. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  40. Sieberson, S. (2008). Dividing lines between the European Union and its Member States. The impact of the Treaty of Lisbon. The Hague: Asser Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Simon, D. (2001). Le système juridique communautaire (3rd ed.). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  42. Singh, N. (1958). Termination of membership of international organisations. London: Stevens and Sons.Google Scholar
  43. Snavely, A. C. (2004/2005). Should we leave the backdoor open? Does an Agreement Uniting States need a withdrawal provision: The European Union Draft Constitution. UMKC Law Review, 73, 213–230.Google Scholar
  44. Soldatos, P. (1969). Durée et dénonciation des Traités de Rome. Revue de droit international, 4, 257–270.Google Scholar
  45. Spinant, D. (2003, April 3–9). Giscard forum set to unveil controversial EU ‘exit clause’. European Voice. http://www.europeanvoice.com/article/imported/giscard-forum-set-to-unveil-controversial-eu-%E2%80%98exit-clause-/47086.aspx. Accessed 5 Feb 2009.
  46. Tomuschat, C. (2006). Secession and self-determination. In M. G. Kohen (Ed.), Secession: International law perspectives (pp. 23–45). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Villiger, M. E. (2009). Commentary on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the law of treaties. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  48. von Bogdandy, A., & Smrkolj, M. (2010). European Community and Union Law and International Law. In R. Wolfrum (Ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Online edition. Available at www.mpepil.com. Updated 2010.
  49. Weiler, J. H. H. (1985). Alternatives to withdrawal from an International Organization: The case of the European Community. Israel Law Review, 20(2–3), 282–298.Google Scholar
  50. Weiss, F. (1985). Greenland’s withdrawal from the European Communities. European Law Review, 10(3), 173–185.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann-Josef Blanke
    • 1
  • Stelio Mangiameli
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty for Economics, Law and Social ScienceUniversity of ErfurtErfurtGermany
  2. 2.National Research Council Institute for Regionalism, Federalism and Self-GovernmentRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations