A New Marker-Less 3D Kinect-Based System for Facial Anthropometric Measurements

  • Claudio Loconsole
  • Nuno Barbosa
  • Antonio Frisoli
  • Verónica Costa Orvalho
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7378)


Several research fields like forensic and orthodontics, use facial anthropometric distances between a set of pairs of facial standard landmarks. There are tens of attempts to automatize the measurement process using 2D and 3D approaches. However, they still suffer of three main drawbacks: human manual intervention to fix the facial landmarks, physical markers placed on the face and required time for the measurement process.

In this paper, we propose a new marker-less system for automatic facial anthropometric measurements based on Microsoft Kinect and FaceTracker API. This new approach overcomes the three measurement drawbacks. We statistically validated the system with respect to the caliper-based manual system, through experimental measurements and one-way ANOVA test comparisons on 36 subjects. The achieved successful percentage in the comparison is equal to 54,5 %.


facial anthropometry depth camera Kinect measurement error three-dimensional 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sinnatamby, C.: Last’s anatomy. Regional and Applied 10 (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choe, K., Sclafani, A., Litner, J., Yu, G., Romo, T.: The korean american woman’s face. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery 6(4), 244 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bianchini, E.M.G.: Avaliaçao fonoaudiológica da motricidade oral-disturbios miofuncionais orafaciais ou situaçöes adaptativas; Speech-pathologist evaluation-orofacial myofunctional disorders or compensatory situation. Rev. Dent. Press Ortodon. Ortop. Maxilar 6(3), 73–82 (2001)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ward, R., Jamison, P., Allanson, J.: Quantitative approach to identifying abnormal variation in the human face exemplified by a study of 278 individuals with five craniofacial syndromes. American Journal of Medical Genetics 91(1), 8–17 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Porter, J., Olson, K.: Anthropometric facial analysis of the african american woman. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery 3(3), 191 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeCarlo, D., Metaxas, D., Stone, M.: An anthropometric face model using variational techniques. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 67–74. ACM (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kau, C., Richmond, S., Zhurov, A., Knox, J., Chestnutt, I., Hartles, F., Playle, R.: Reliability of measuring facial morphology with a 3-dimensional laser scanning system. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 128(4), 424–430 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hammond, P., Hutton, T., Allanson, J., Campbell, L., Hennekam, R., Holden, S., Patton, M., Shaw, A., Temple, I., Trotter, M.: 3d analysis of facial morphology. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 126(4), 339–348 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schimmel, M., Christou, P., Houstis, O., Herrmann, F., Kiliaridis, S., Müller, F.: Distances between facial landmarks can be measured accurately with a new digital 3-dimensional video system. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 137(5), 580–e1 (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weinberg, S., Scott, N., Neiswanger, K., Brandon, C., Marazita, M.: Digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: evaluation of anthropometric precision and accuracy using a genex 3d camera system. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 41(5), 507–518 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saragih J., Lucey S., Cohn J.: Deformable model fitting by regularized landmark mean-shift. International Journal of Computer Vision, 1–16 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Loconsole
    • 1
  • Nuno Barbosa
    • 2
    • 3
  • Antonio Frisoli
    • 1
  • Verónica Costa Orvalho
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.PERCRO LaboratoryScuola Superiore Sant’AnnaItaly
  2. 2.Instituto de TelecomunicaçõesPortugal
  3. 3.Faculdade de EngenhariaUniversidade do PortoPortugal
  4. 4.Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade do PortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations