Advertisement

Reverse-Engineering Scanning Keyboards

  • Foad Hamidi
  • Melanie Baljko
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7383)

Abstract

Scanning or soft keyboards are alternatives to physical computer keyboards that allow users with motor disabilities to compose text and control the computer using a small number of input actions. In this paper, we present the reverse Huffman algorithm (RHA), a novel Information Theoretic method that extracts a representative latent probability distribution from a given scanning keyboard design. By calculating the Jensen-Shannon Divergence (JSD)between the extracted probability distribution and the probability distribution that represents the body of text that will be composed by the scanning keyboard, the efficiency of the design can be predicted and designs can be compared with each other. Thus, using RHS provides a novel a priori context-aware method for reverse-engineering scanning keyboards.

Keywords

Scanning Keyboards Information Theory Huffman Algorithm 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baljko, M., Tam, A.: Indirect text entry using one or two keys. In: Proceedings of ASSETS 2006, pp. 18–25 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Card, S.K., Nordmann, R.: The keystroke-level model for user performance time with interactive systems. Communications of the ACM 23, 396–410 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Felzer, T., Nordmann, R.: How to operate a PC without using the hands. In: Proc. of ASSETS 2005, pp. 198–199 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grinter, R.E., Eldridge, M.A.: y do tngrs luv 2 txt msg? In: Prinz, W., Jarke, M., Rogers, Y., Schmidt, K., Wulf, V. (eds.) Proc. of ECSCW 2001, pp. 219–238 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huffman, D.A.: A method for the construction of minimum-redundancy codes. Proc. of the Institute for Radio Engineers 40(9), 1098–1102 (1952)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kullback, S., Leibler, R.A.: On information and sufficiency. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 22, 79–86 (1951)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin, J.: Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 37(1), 145–151 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    MacKenzie, I.S.: The one-key challenge: Searching for a fast one-key text entry method. In: Proc. of ASSETS 2009, pp. 91–98 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Soukoreff, R.W.: Text entry for mobile computing: Models and methods, theory and practice. Human-Computer Interaction 17, 147–198 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Majtey, A.P., Lamberti, P.W., Martin, M.T., Plastino, A.: Wootters’ distance revisited: a new distinguishability criterium. European Physics Journal D 32, 413–419 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Venkatarigi, H.S.: Efficient keyboard Layouts for sequential access in augmentative and alternative communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication 15(2), 126–134 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Foad Hamidi
    • 1
  • Melanie Baljko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations