On the Perceptual Artifacts Introduced by Packet Losses on the Forward Channel of Haptic Telemanipulation Sessions

  • Fernanda Brandi
  • Burak Cizmeci
  • Eckehard Steinbach
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7282)


In this work we study the position and velocity signal reconstructions using predictive coding when packets are lost during telemanipulation sessions and classify the high-level haptic artifacts perceived by the users. The usage of packet-switched networks for bilateral telemanipulation systems is challenging due to several adversities such as low transmission rates, packet delays, jitter and losses. The previously proposed deadband-based haptic data reduction approaches selectively decrease the high transmission rate of the force-feedback and position/velocity samples on account of human perception limitations. Recently, an error-resilient perceptual haptic data reduction approach was proposed to address the packet losses in the feedback channel. However, the impact of faltered transmission on the forward channel and its subjective influence on the user are still an open issue and thus are treated in this paper.


[Robotics and automation]: Teleoperators [H.5.2.g]: Haptic I/O [E.4.a]: Data compaction and compression [C.2.1.g]: Network communications [Signal Processing]: Error Correction [Information Theory]: Error Compensation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hirche, S.: Haptic Telepresence in Packet Switched Communication. PhD thesis. VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldstein, E.B.: Sensation and Perception. 6th edn. Wadsworth (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, R., Spong, M.: Bilateral control of teleoperators with time delay. IEEE Trans. Automatic Control 34, 494–501 (1989)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shi, Z., Zou, H., Rank, M., Chen, L., Hirche, S., Müller, H.J.: Effects of packet loss and latency on the temporal discrimination of visual-haptic events. IEEE Trans. on Haptics 3(1), 28–36 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hinterseer, P., Hirche, S., Chaudhuri, S., Steinbach, E., Buss, M.: Perception-based data reduction and transmission of haptic data in telepresence and teleaction systems. IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing 56(2), 588–597 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ortega, C.S.A., Kolahdouzan, M.R.: A comparison of different haptic compression techniques. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Lausanne, Switzerland (August 2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ortega, A., Liu, Y.: Lossy compression of haptic data. Prentice-Hall (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burdea, G.C.: Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality. Wiley, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brandi, F., Kammerl, J., Steinbach, E.: Error-resilient perceptual coding for networked haptic interaction. In: Proc. of ACM Multimedia, Firenze, Italy, pp. 351–360 (October 2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brandi, F., Steinbach, E.: Low-complexity error-resilient data reduction approach for networked haptic sessions. In: Proc. of IEEE Int. Symposium on Haptic Audio-Visual Environments and Games (HAVE), Qinhuangdao, China (October 2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chou, P.A., Miao, Z.: Rate-distortion optimized streaming of packetized media. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia 8(2), 390–404 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hirche, S., Buss, M.: Packet loss effects in passive telepresence systems. In: Proc. of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Atlantis, Paradise Island, Bahamas, vol. 4, pp. 4010–4015 (December 2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hirche, S., Buss, M., Hinterseer, P., Steinbach, E.: Towards deadband control in networked teleoperation systems. In: Proc. of International Federation of Automatic Control World Congress (IFAC), Prague (July 2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chopra, N., Spong, M.W., Hirche, S., Buss, M.: Bilateral teleoperation over the internet: the time varying delay problem. In: Proc. of American Control Conference, vol. 1, pp. 155–160 (June 2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Conti, F., Barbagli, F., Morris, D., Sewell, C.: CHAI 3D: An open-source library for the rapid development of haptic scenes. In: Proc. of IEEE World Haptics, Pisa, Italy (March 2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kammerl, J., Hinterseer, P., Steinbach, E.: A novel signal reconstruction algorithm for perception based data reduction in haptic signal communication. In: Proc. of Int. Workshop on Networking Technology for Robotics and Applications, with Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks, Honolulu, Hawaii (August 2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernanda Brandi
    • 1
  • Burak Cizmeci
    • 1
  • Eckehard Steinbach
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Media TechnologyTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations