Geology and Morphostructural Evolution of Piton de la Fournaise

  • Laurent Michon
  • Jean-François Lénat
  • Patrick Bachèlery
  • Andrea Di Muro
Chapter
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)

Abstract

The morphology of Piton de la Fournaise volcano results from the succession of construction, destruction and deformation processes that occurred since at least 530 ka. The chaotic surface of the gently dipping submarine flanks indicates that volcaniclastic deposits related to massive flank landslides and erosion cover most of the submarine flanks. Only a few seamounts like Cône Elianne and the submarine continuation of the rift zones are built by lava flows. In the subaerial domain, Piton de la Fournaise exhibits deeply incised canyons evidencing intense erosion and eastward verging scarps whose origin is still controversial. The different interpretations invoking flank landslides and/or summit collapse calderas are summarized. Geological data indicate a twofold construction of Piton de la Fournaise. Between 530 and 60 kyrs, the volcanic centre located in the current Plaine des Sables led to the building of the western part of the massif. The volcanic centre migrated eastwards to its current location, possibly at 60–40 kyrs. Then Piton de la Fournaise experienced caldera collapses and recurrent phreatomagmatic eruptions especially between 4880 and 2340 yr BP as evidenced by the Bellecombe ash deposit. Most of the recent volcanic activity is now currently focused restricted inside the Enclos Fouqué caldera where lava flow accumulation and rare explosive events built the 400-m-high Central Cone.

Keywords

Lava Flow Rift Zone Volcanic Centre Debris Avalanche Lava Lake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albarède F, Luais B, Fitton G, Semet M, Kaminski E, Upton BGJ, Bachèlery P, Cheminée JL (1997) The geochemical regimes of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion) during the last 530,000 years. J Petrol 38:171–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babonneau N, Delacourt C, Cancouët R, Sisavath E, Bachèlery P, Mazuel A, Jorry SJ, Deschamps A, Ammann J, Villeneuve N (2013) Direct sediment transfer from land to deep-sea: insights from new shallow-marine multibeam data at La Réunion Island. Mar Geol 346:47–57. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2013.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babonneau N, Villeneuve N, Mazuel A, Bachèlery P (2016) Erosion and volcaniclastic sedimentation at Piton de la Fournaise: from source to deep marine environment. In: Bachèlery P, Lénat JF, Di Muro A, Michon L (eds) Active volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala. Active Volcanoes of the World. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachèlery P (1981) Le Piton de la Fournaise (Ile de la Réunion). Etude volcanologique, structurale et pétrologique. PhD thesis 215 pp., Univ Clermont-Ferrand II, Clermont-FerrandGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachèlery P, Lénat JF (1993) Le Piton de la Fournaise. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France. Nouvelle Série 163:221–229Google Scholar
  6. Bachèlery P, Mairine P (1990) Evolution volcano-structurale du Piton de la Fournaise depuis 0.53 Ma. In: Lénat JF (ed) Le volcanisme de la Réunion–Monographie. Centre de Recherche en Volcanologie. Clermont-Ferrand, pp 213–242Google Scholar
  7. Bachèlery P, Villeneuve N (2013) Hot spots and large igneous provinces.In: Shroder J, Owen L (eds) Treatise on geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, 5, pp 193–233Google Scholar
  8. Bory de Saint-Vincent JBG (1804) Voyage dans les quatre principales iles des mers d’Afrique, fait par ordre du gouvernement, pendant les années neuf et dix de la République (1801 et 1802). Buisson (4 volumes)Google Scholar
  9. Chevallier L, Bachèlery P (1981) Evolution structurale du volcan actif du Piton de la Fournaise, Ile de la Réunion—Océan indien occidental. Bull Volcanol 44:723–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cochonat P, Lénat JF, Bachèlery P, Boivin P, Cornaglia B, Deniel C, Labazuy P, Ledrezen E, Lipman P, Ollier G, Savoye B, Vincent P, Voisset M (1990) Gravity events as a primary process in the construction of a submarine volcano-sedimentary system (Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island). C. Rendus Acad Sci Serie II 311:679–686Google Scholar
  11. Duffield WA, Stieltjes L, Varet J (1982) Huge landslide blocks in the growth of Piton de la Fournaise, La Reunion, and Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Volcanol Geoth Res 12:147–160Google Scholar
  12. Gailler LS, Lénat JF (2010) Three-dimensional structure of the submarine flanks of La Réunion inferred from geophysical data. J Geophys Res 115(B12). doi:  10.1029/2009JB007193
  13. Gailler L, Lénat JF, Lambert M, Levieux G, Villeneuve N, Froger JL (2009) Gravity structure of Piton de la Fournaise volcano and inferred mass transfer during the 2007 crisis. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184:31–48. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garcin M, Poisson B, Pouget R (2005) High rates of geomorphological processes in a tropical area: the Remparts River case study (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean). Geomorphology 67:335–350. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gayer E, Lopez P, Michon L (2014) DEM-based model for reconstructing volcano’s morphology from primary volcanic landforms. Geophys Res Abstracts 16:EGU2014-10701Google Scholar
  16. Gillot PY, Nativel P (1989) Eruptive history of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 36:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gillot PY, Lefèvre JC, Nativel PE (1994) Model for the structural evolution of the volcanoes of Réunion Island. Earth Planet Sci Lett 122:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hürlimann M, Marti J, Ledesma A (2004) Morphological and geological aspects related to large slope failures on oceanic islands: the huge La Orotava landslides on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Geomorphology 62:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Labazuy P (1996) Recurrent landslides events on the submarine flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Ré́union Island). In: McGuire WJ, Jones AP, Neuberg J (eds) Volcano instability on the earth and other planets. vol 110, Geol Soc Spec Publ, pp 293–30Google Scholar
  20. Le Friant A, Lebas E, Clément V, Boudon G, Deplus C, de Voogd B, Bachèlery P (2011) A new model for the evolution of La Réunion volcanic complex from complete marine geophysical surveys. Geophys Res Lett 38:L09312. doi: 10.1029/2011GL047489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lénat J, Gibert-Malengreau B, Galdeano A (2001a) A new model for the evolution of the volcanic island of Reunion (Indian Ocean). J Geoph Res-Solid Earth 106:8645–8663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lénat JF, Bachèlery P, Desmulier F (2001b) Genèse du champ de lave de l’Enclos Fouqué; une éruption d’envergure exceptionnelle du Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion) au 18ème siècle. Bull Soc géol Fr 172:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lénat JF, Boivin P, Deniel C, Gillot PY, Bachèlery P (2009) Age and nature of deposits on the submarine flanks of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184:199–207. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lénat JF, Bachèlery P, Peltier A (2012a) The interplay between collapse structures, hydrothermal systems and magma intrusions: the case of the central area of Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Bull Volc 7:407–421. doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0535-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lénat JF, Bachèlery P, Merle O (2012b) Anatomy of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion, Indian Ocean). Bull Volcanol 74:1945–1961. doi: 10.1007/s00445-012-0640-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lénat JF, Vincent PM, Bachèlery P (1989) The off-shore continuation of an active basaltic volcano: Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean); structural and geomorphological interpretation from sea beam mapping. J Volcanol Geoth Res 36:1–36.Google Scholar
  27. Letourneur L, Peltier A, Staudacher T, Gudmundsson A (2008) The effects of rock heterogeneities on dyke paths and asymmetric grounddeformation: the example of Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 173:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luais B (2004) Temporal changes in Nd isotopic composition of Piton de la Fournaise magmatism (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean). Geochem Geophys Geosyst 5:Q01008. doi: 10.1029/2002GC000502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacDonald GA (1972) Volcanoes. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs 510 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Maillard L (1862) Notes sur l’île de la Réunion (Bourbon). Lanée, Paris 344 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mairine P, Bachèlery P (1997) Un grand épisode érosionnel dans l’histoire ancienne du Piton de la Fournaise. C Rendus Acad Sci Paris 325:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Malahoff A (1987) Geology of the summit of Loihi submarine volcano. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1350:133–144Google Scholar
  33. Mark RK, Moore J (1987) Slopes of the Hawaiian ridge. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:101–107Google Scholar
  34. Merle O, Borgia A (1996) Scaled experiments of volcanic spreading. J Geophys Res 101:13805–13817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Merle O, Lénat J (2003) Hybrid collapse mechanism at Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth 108(B3):2166. doi: 10.1029/2002JB002014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Merle O, Mairine P, Michon L, Bachèlery P, Smietana M (2010) Calderas, landslides and paleo-canyons on Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 189:131–142. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Michon L, Saint-Ange F (2008) Morphology of Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano (La Réunion Island): characterization and implication in the volcano evolution. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth 113:B03203. doi: 10.1029/2005JB004118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Michon L, Staudacher T, Ferrazzini V, Bachelery P, Marti J (2007) April 2007 collapse of Piton de la Fournaise: a new example of caldera formation. Geophys Res Lett 34:L21301. doi: 10.1029/2007GL031248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Michon L, Di Muro A, Villeneuve N, Saint-Marc C, Fadda P, Manta F (2013) Explosive activity of the summit cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion island): a historical and geological review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 264:117–133. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Michon L, Ferrazzini V, Di Muro A (2016) Magma paths at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. In: Bachèlery P, Lénat JF, Di Muro A, Michon L (eds) Active volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala. Active Volcanoes of the World. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  41. Mohamed-Abchir A (1996) Les Cendres de Bellecombe: un évènement majeur dans le passé récent du Piton de la Fournaise, Ile de la Réunion. PhD thesis, Univ Paris VII 248 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Moore JG (1964) Giant submarine landslides on the Hawaiian ridge. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 501:D95–D98Google Scholar
  43. Moore JG, Mark MK (1992) Morphology of the Island of Hawaii. GSA Today 2:257–262Google Scholar
  44. Morandi A, Di Muro A, Principe C, Michon L, Leroi G, Norelli F, Bachèlery P (2016) Pre-historic explosive activity at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. In: Bachèlery P, Lénat JF, Di Muro A, Michon L (eds) Active volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala. Active Volcanoes of the World. Springer, Berlin  Google Scholar
  45. Oehler JF, Labazuy P, Lénat JF (2004) Recurrence of major flank landslides during the last 2-Ma-history of Reunion Island. Bull Volcanol 66:585–598. doi: 10.1007/s00445-004-0341-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oehler JF, Lénat JF, Labazuy P (2008) Growth and collapse of the Reunion Island volcanoes. Bull Volcanol 70:717–742. doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0163-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ollier G, Cochonat P, Lénat JF, Labazuy P (1998) Deep-sea volcaniclastic sedimentary systems: an example from La Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, Indian Ocean. Sedimentology 45:293–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ort M, Di Muro A, Michon L, Bachèlery P (2014) The Bellecombe ash: indications of explosive eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island. IAVCEI - 5IMC conference. Queretaro, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  49. Peltier A, Staudacher T, Bachèlery P, Cayol V (2009) Formation of the April 2007 caldera collapse at Piton de La Fournaise volcano: Insights from GPS data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184:152–163. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Peltier A, Massin F, Bachèlery P, Finizola A (2012) Insights on internal structures and edification of basaltic shield volcanoes: new field investigations on Piton de La Fournaise. Bull Volc 74:1881–1897. doi: 10.1007/s00445-012-0636-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rowland SK (1996) Slopes, lava flow volumes, and vent distributions on Volcan Fernandina, Galapagos Islands. J Geophys Res 101:27657–27672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rowland S, Garbeil H (2000) Slopes of oceanic basalt volcanoes. In: Mouginis-Mark PJ, Crisp JA, Fink JH (eds) Remote sensing of active volcanism. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 116, pp 223–247Google Scholar
  53. Saint-Ange F, Savoye B, Michon L, Bachèlery P, Deplus C, de Voogd B, Dyment J, Le Drezen E, Voisset M, Le Friant A, Boudon G (2011) A volcaniclastic deep-sea fan off La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean): gradualism versus catastrophism. Geology 39:271–274. doi: 10.1130/g31478.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saint-Ange F, Bachèlery P, Babonneau N, Michon L, Jorry S (2013) Volcaniclastic sedimentation on the submarine slopes of a basaltic hotspot volcano: Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean). Mar Geol 337:35–52. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2013.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sisavath E, Babonneau N, Saint-Ange F, Bachèlery P, Jorry S, Deplus C, de Voogd B, Savoye B (2011) Morphology and sedimentary architecture of a modern volcaniclastic turbidite system: the Cilaos fan, offshore La Réunion Island. Mar Geol 288:1–17. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2011.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sisavath E, Mazuel A, Jorry S, Babonneau N, Bachèlery P, de Voogd B, Salpin M, Emmanuel L, Beaufort L, Toucanne S (2012) Processes controlling a volcaniclastic turbiditic system during the last climatic cycle: example of the Cilaos deep-sea fan, offshore La Reunion Island. Sedim Geol 281:180–193. doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smietana M (2011) Pétrologie, géochronologie (K-Ar) et géochimie élémentaire et isotopique (Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb) de laves anciennes de La Réunion: Implications sur la construction de l’édifice volcanique. Unpublished PhD thesis, Univ. La Réunion pp. 364Google Scholar
  58. Staudacher T, Allègre CJ (1993) Ages of the second caldera of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion) determined by cosmic ray produced 3He and 21Ne. Earth Planet Sci Lett 119:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Staudacher T, Ferrazzini V, Peltier A, Kowalski P, Boissier P, Catherine P, Lauret F, Massin F (2009) The April 2007 eruption and the Dolomieu crater collapse, two major events at Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184:126–137. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tort A, Finizola A (2005) Structural survey of misti volcanic cone (southern Peru) combining elliptical fourier function analysis of the volcano morphology and self-potential measurements. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 141:283–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Villeneuve N, Bachèlery P (2006) Revue de la typologie des éruptions au Piton de La Fournaise, processus et risques volcaniques associés. Cybergeo Eur J Geog (http://cybergeo.revues.org/2536)
  62. Walker GPL (1986) Koolau dike complex, Oahu: intensity and origin of a sheeted-dike complex high in a Hawaiian volcanic edifice. Geology 14:310–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurent Michon
    • 1
  • Jean-François Lénat
    • 2
  • Patrick Bachèlery
    • 2
  • Andrea Di Muro
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratoire Géosciences Réunion, Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisUniversité de La Réunion, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRSSaint DenisFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, UMR CNRS-IRD 6524, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-FerrandUniversité Blaise PascalClermont-FerrandFrance
  3. 3.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 7154 CNRSUniversité Paris DiderotParisFrance

Personalised recommendations