A Review of the Recent Geochemical Evolution of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (1927–2010)

Chapter
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)

Abstract

Between 1927 and 2010, more than one hundred eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise produced ~1 km3 of lava, and the volcano’s summit collapsed twice (in 1931 and 2007). These lavas display, respectively, 20 and 65 % of the Sr–Nd and the Pb isotope ranges reported for La Réunion volcanoes over their known eruptive record (3.8 Ma). Variations in major and trace element concentrations and Sr–Pb isotopes do not define a temporal trend at the scale of the century, but display systematic short-term cyclic fluctuations. The positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and ratios of trace elements that are more versus less incompatible during partial melting of the mantle (e.g., Nd/Sm, La/Sm) probably results from the sampling of small-scale heterogeneities within the plume source. Changes in the degree of melting and/or crystallization are debated, but these appear ultimately linked to source properties. Lead isotopes do not co-vary with Sr isotopes, in part because of the partitioning of Pb into dense metallic phases that are preferentially sampled during high-flux eruptions. Taken together, Sr–Nd–Pb–Os–Th isotopes do not support contamination of magma with genetically unrelated components, such as the underlying Indian oceanic crust, mantle lithosphere, seawater, or seawater-altered lavas. Yet, in some rare cases (e.g. the 1998 Hudson eruption), the compositional patterns suggest that the parental magma assimilated older volcanic products within the edifice, such as crystal cumulates and/or interstitial differentiated melts. The geochemical fluctuations over the 1927–2010 time period constrain the residence time of magma in the shallow reservoir to 10–30 years and its size to 0.1–0.3 km3. The magma residence time during the course of the long-lived 1998 eruption is estimated to be an order of magnitude shorter, but the reservoir was probably of similar size. Instead, the shorter magma residence for the 1998 eruption was probably due to a higher magma flux.

Keywords

Volcanic Edifice Plumbing System Trace Element Ratio Kilauea Volcano Incompatible Element Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper benefited from the constructive comments of E. Todd and M. Coombs from USGS. The studied samples were collected by G. Kieffer, P.M. Vincent, P. Boivin, P. Bachèlery, F. Albarède, T. Staudacher, and several members from the Piton de la Fournaise observatory and La Réunion University. D. Auclair, and C. Bosq are thanked for the new Sr isotope data on the April 2007 eruption. This work was financed by the French Government Laboratory of Excellence initiative n°ANR-10-LABX-0006, the Région Auvergne and the European Regional Development Fund. This is Laboratory of Excellence ClerVolc contribution number 118.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansClermont Université, Université Blaise PascalAubièreFrance
  2. 2.U.S. Geological SurveyDenver Federal CenterDenverUSA

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