Landslides and New Lakes in Deglaciating Areas: A Risk Management Framework

  • Yvonne Schaub
  • Wilfried Haeberli
  • Christian Huggel
  • Matthias Künzler
  • Michael Bründl


New lakes forming in high-mountain areas due to climate-driven glacier shrinkage are likely to be located in areas of potentially unstable slopes. Therefore they are prone to impacts from rock/ice-avalanches and other types of landslides, which might trigger outburst floods causing damage farther down valley. In view of an integral lake management, a risk management concept for the Swiss Alps is proposed in this study, which consists of risk analysis, risk evaluation and the integral planning of risk reduction measures. The pertinent question is how risk, resulting from natural hazard process chains involved with landslides and new lakes, can be assessed. The present knowledge basis together with currently available models, methods and tools is herein reviewed. Knowledge gaps are mainly identified in the determination of future landslide detachement zones and in the evaluation of changes in landuse and damage potential.


Integral lake management Natural hazards Rock failure Glacier lake outburst floods Landuse change Risk assessment 



This study is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation as part of the project 406140_125997. We also acknowledge valuable discussions with Holger Frey and Andreas Linsbauer.


  1. Agliardi F, Crosta G (2003) High resolution three-dimensional numerical modelling of rockfalls. Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 40:455–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alean J (1985) Ice avalanches – some empirical information about their formation and reach. J Glaciol 31(109):324–333Google Scholar
  3. Ammann WJ (2004) Alpenwelt – Gebirgswelten, Inseln, Brücken, Grenzen. In: Gamerith W, Messerli P, Meusbuerger P, Wanner H (eds) Tagungsbericht und wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. 54. Deutscher Geographentag. 28. September bis 4. Oktober 2003, Heidelberg/Bern, pp 259–267Google Scholar
  4. BAFU (2010) Wirtschaftlichkeit von Schutzmassnahmen gegen Naturgefahren. EconoMe 2.1 URL: Last accessed 01 June 2011
  5. Bischof N, Romang H, Bründl M (2008) In: Martorell S, Soares CG, Barnett J (eds) Safety, reliability and risk analysis: theory methods and applications. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 2789–2795Google Scholar
  6. Bründl M, Romang H, Bischof N, Rheinberger CM (2009) The risk concept an its application in natural hazard risk management in Switzerland. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:801–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunetti MT, Guzzetti F, Rossi M (2009) Probability distributions of landslide volumes. Nonlinear Processes Geophys 16(2):179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carey M (2005) Living and dying with glaciers: people’s historical vulnerability to avalanches and outburst floods in Peru. Global Planet Change 47(2–4):122–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clague JJ, Evans SG (2000) A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia. Quater Sci Rev 19(17–18):1763–1783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Costa JE (1994) Floods from dam failures. J Glaciol 40(134):439–462Google Scholar
  11. Costa JE, Schuster RL (1988) The formation and failure of natural dams. Geological Soc Am Bull 100(7):1054–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DARA (2011) GAR 2011 – Annexes and background papers. Annex 6: Global data set underlying the DARA risk reduction Index URL: Last accessed 30 May 2011
  13. Davies M, Hamza O, Harris C (2001) The effect of rise in mean annual temperature on the stability of rock slopes containing ice-filled discontinuities. Permafrost Periglac Process 12(1):137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Di Risio M, Bellotti G, Panizzo A, De Girolamo P (2009) Three-dimensional experiments on landslide generated waves at a sloping coast. Coast Eng 56(5–6):659–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eidsvig U, Medina-Cetina Z, Kveldsvik V, Glimsdal S, Harbitz C, Sandersen F (2011) Risk assessment of a tsunamigenic rockslide at Åknes. Nat Hazards 56(2):529–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans SG, Clague JJ (1994) Recent climatic-change and catastrophic geomorphic processes in mountain environments. Geomorphology 10(1–4):107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Faeh R (2007) Numerical modeling of breach erosion of river embankments. J Hydraul Eng 133(9):1000–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farinotti D, Huss M, Bauder A, Funk M (2009) An estimate of the glacier ice volume in the Swiss Alps. Global Planet Change 68(3):225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fischer L (2009) Slope instabilities on perennially frozen and glacierised rock walls: multi-scale observations, analyses and modelling. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  20. Frattini P, Crosta G, Carrara A, Agliardi F (2008) Assessment of rockfall susceptibility by integrating statistical and physically-based approaches. Geomorphology 94(3–4):419–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fread DL (1991) Breach: an erosion model for earthern dam failures. Silver Spring, MD: Hydrological Research Laboratory, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 39 pGoogle Scholar
  22. Frey H, Haeberli W, Linsbauer A, Huggel C, Paul F (2010a) A multi-level strategy for anticipating future glacier lake formation and associated hazard potentials. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10(2):339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frey H, Huggel C, Paul F, Haeberli W (2010b) Automated detection of glacier lakes based on remote sensing in view of assessing associated hazard potentials. Grazer Schriften der Geographie und Raumforschung 44:206–216Google Scholar
  24. Fuchs S, Heiss K, Hübl J (2007) Towards an empirical vulnerability function for use in debris flow risk assessment. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 7(5):495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gruber S, Haeberli W (2007) Permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and its temperature-related destabilization following climate change. J Geophys Res 112:10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gruber S, Haeberli W, Krummenacher B, Keller F, Mani P, Hunziker G, Hoelzle M, Vonder Mühll D, Zimmermann M, Keusen HR, Götz A, Rätzo H (2006) Erläuterungen zur Hinweiskarte der potentiellen Permafrostverbreitung in der Schweiz 1: 50,000. Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU)/Swiss Federal Office for the Environment BernGoogle Scholar
  27. Gruber S, Hoelzle M, Haeberli W (2004) Permafrost thaw and destabilization of Alpine rock walls in the hot summer of 2003. Geophys Res Lett 31(13):4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haeberli W, Alean J, Müller P, Funk M (1989) Assessing risks from glacier hazards in high mountain regions: some experiences in the Swiss Alps. Ann Glaciol 13:96–102Google Scholar
  29. Haeberli W, Clague JJ, Huggel C, Kääb A (2010a) Hazards from lakes in high-mountain glacier and permafrost regions: climate change effects and process interactions. Proceedings of the Advances de Geomorfología en España 2008–2010. XI Reunión Nacional de Geomorfología. Solsona, p 10Google Scholar
  30. Haeberli W, Fischer L, Gruber S, Hasler A, Huggel C, Noetzli J, Schneider D (2010b) A strategy for assessing risks relating to rock and rock/ice avalanches from high-mountain permafrost slopes. In: Proceedings of the third European conference on permafrost. Longyerbyen/Svalbard, p 52Google Scholar
  31. Haeberli W, Hoelzle M (1995) Application of inventory data for estimation characteristics of and regional climate-change effects on mountain glaciers: a pilot study with the European Alps. Ann Glaciol 21:206–212Google Scholar
  32. Haeberli W, Hoelzle M, Paul F, Zemp M (2007) Integrated monitoring of mountain glaciers as key indicators of global climate change: the European Alps. Ann Glaciol 46:150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haeberli W, Huggel C, Kääb A, Gruber S, Nötzli J, Zgraggen-Oswald S (2006) Development and perspectives of applied research on glacier and permafrost hazards in high-mountain regions - the example of Switzerland. In: Proceedings of the international conference on high mountain hazard prevention. Vladikvkaz/Moscow, pp 219–228Google Scholar
  34. Haeberli W, Portocarrero C, Evans SG (2010c) Nevado Hualcán, Laguna 513 y Carhuaz 2010 - observaciones, evaluación y recomendaciones. “Informe 513” un corto informe técnico luego de las reuniones y visita de campo en Julio 2010. On behalf of the Municipalidad de CarhuazGoogle Scholar
  35. Haeberli W, Wegmann M, Vonder Mühll D (1997) Slope stability problems related to glacier shrinkage and permafrost degradation in the Alps. Eclogae Geol Helv 90:407–414Google Scholar
  36. Hancox G, McSaveney MJ, Manville VR, Davies TR (2005) The October 1999 Mt Adams rock avalanche and subsequent landslide dam-break flood and effects in Poerua River, Westland, New Zealand. New Zealand J Geol Geophy 48(4):683–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harris C, Arenson LU, Christiansen HH, Etzelmüller B, Frauenfelder R, Gruber S, Haeberli W, Hauck C, Hölzle M, Humlum O, Isaksen K, Kääb A, Kern-Lütschg MA, Lehning M, Matsuoka N, Murton JB, Nötzli J, Phillips M, Ross N, Seppälä M, Springman SM, Vonder Mühll D (2009) Permafrost and climate in Europe: monitoring and modelling thermal, geomorphological and geotechnical responses. Earth-Sci Rev 92(3–4):117–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hegglin E, Huggel C (2008) An integrated assessment of vulnerability to glacial hazards: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Mount Res Develop 28(3/4):299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Heim A (1932) Bergsturz und Menschenleben. Fretz & Wasmuth, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  40. Heller V, Hager WH, Minor HE (2008) Rutscherzeugte Impulswellen in Stauseen: Grundlagen und Berechnung. Mitteilungen 206 der Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW), ETH, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  41. Hubbard B, Heald A, Reynolds JM, Quincey D, Richardson SD, Zapato M, Santillan N, Hambrey MJ (2005) Impact of a rock avalanche on a moraine-dammed proglacial lake: Laguna Safuna Alta, Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Earth Surf Process Land 30(10): 1251–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huber R, Rigling A (2010) Sustainable land-use practices in mountain regions: Integrative analysis of ecosystem dynamics under global change, socio-economic impacts and policy implications (MOUNTLAND). In: Latsis symposium 2010: Research in environment and sustainability - insights and conclusions. ETH, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  43. Huggel C (2009) Recent extreme slope failures in glacial environments: effects of thermal perturbation. Quater Sci Rev 28(11–12): 1119–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huggel C, Haeberli W, Kääb A, Bieri D, Richardson SD (2004) An assessment procedure for glacial hazards in the Swiss Alps. Can Geotech J 41(6):1068–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huggel C, Kääb A, Haeberli W (2002a) Glacier hazards. URL: Last accessed 03 June 2011Google Scholar
  46. Huggel C, Kääb A, Haeberli W, Krummenacher B (2003) Regional-scale GIS-models for assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: evaluation and application in the Swiss Alps. Nat Hazards Ear Syst Sci 3(6):647–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huggel C, Kääb A, Haeberli W, Teysseire P, Paul F (2002b) Remote sensing based assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: a case study in the Swiss Alps. Can Geotech J 39(2):316–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huggel C, Khabarov N, Obersteiner M, Ramírez J (2010) Implementation and integrated numerical modeling of a landslide early warning system: a pilot study in Colombia. Nat Hazards 52(2):501–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huggel C, Zgraggen-Oswald S, Haeberli W, Kääb A, Polkvoj A, Galushkin I, Evans SG (2005) The 2002 rock/ice avalanche at Kolka/Karmadon, Russian Caucasus: assessment of extraordinary avalanche formation and mobility, and application of QuickBird satellite imagery. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 5(2):173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huss M, Farinotti D, Bauder A, Funk M (2008) Modelling runoff from highly glacierized alpine drainage basins in a changing climate. Hydrolog Process 22(19):3888–3902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. IRV (2007) Veränderung des Klimas und der Gebäudeverletzlichkeit in der Schweiz bis 2050, Workshop. Interkantonaler Rückversicherungsverband. 35 pGoogle Scholar
  52. Jakob M, Friele P (2010) Frequency and magnitude of debris flows on Cheekye River, British Columbia. Geomorphology 114(3): 382–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kääb A, Huggel C, Fischer L, Guex S, Paul F, Roer I, Salzmann N, Schlaefli S, Schmutz K, Schneider D, Strozzi T, Weidmann Y (2005) Remote sensing of glacier- and permafrost-related hazards in high mountains: an overview. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 5(4):527–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaser G, Cogley JG, Dyurgerov MB, Meier MF, Ohmura A (2006) Mass balance of glaciers and ice caps: consensus estimates for 1961–2004. Geophys Res Lett 33(19):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kershaw JA, Clague JJ, Evans SG (2005) Geomorphic and sedimentological signature of a two-phase outburst flood from moraine-dammed Queen Bess Lake, British Columbia, Canada. Earth Surf Process Land 30(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khan A, Jamal SQ (2000) In: Melchers RE, Stewart MG (eds) Application of statistics and probability – civil engineering reliability and risk analysis. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam/Brookfield, pp 363–366Google Scholar
  57. Korup O, Clague JJ (2009) Natural hazards, extreme events, and mountain topography. Quater Sci Rev 28(11–12):977–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Korup O, Tweed F (2007) Ice, moraine and landslide dams in mountainous terrain. Quater Sci Rev 26:3406–3422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lacasse S, Eidsvig U, Nadim F, Hoeg K and Blikra LH (2008) Event tree analysis of Åknes rock slide hazard. In: Proceedings of the 4th Canadian conference on geohazards: from causes to management. QuébecGoogle Scholar
  60. Lavallee D, Marche C, Quach T (2000) New approaches for quantifying the risk of a dam break. Canadian J Civil Eng 27(6):1217–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leveque R (2006) Clawpack, Version 4.5 URL: Last accessed 14 June 2011
  62. Linsbauer A (2008) Modellierung von Gletscherbetten mit GIS. Diploma thesis, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  63. Linsbauer A, Paul F, Hoelzle M, Frey H, Haeberli W (2009) The Swiss Alps without glaciers – a GIS-based modelling approach for reconstruction of glacier beds. In: Proceedings of the geomorphometry 2009. Zurich, pp 243–247Google Scholar
  64. Margreth S, Funk M (1999) Hazard mapping for ice and combined snow/ice avalanches - two case studies from the Swiss and Italian Alps. Cold Reg Sci Technol 30(1–3):159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McKillop R, Clague JJ (2007a) A procedure for making objective preliminary assessments of outburst flood hazard from moraine-dammed lakes in southwestern British Columbia. Nat Hazards 41(1):131–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McKillop R, Clague JJ (2007b) Statistical, remote sensing-based approach for estimating the probability of catastrophic drainage from moraine-dammed lakes in Southwestern British Columbia. Global Planet Change 56(1–2):153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Medina-Cetina Z, Nadim F (2008) Stochastic design of an early warning system. Georisk Assess Manage Risk Eng Syst Geohazards 2(4):223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nötzli J, Gruber S (2009) Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost. Cryosphere 3:85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nötzli J, Gruber S, Kohl T, Salzmann N, Haeberli W (2007) Three-dimensional distribution and evolution of permafrost temperatures in idealized high-mountain topography. J Geophys Res 112:14Google Scholar
  70. Nötzli J, Hölzle M, Haeberli W (2003) Mountain permafrost and recent Alpine rock-fall events: a GIS-based approach to determine critical factors. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on permafrost. Zurich, pp 827–832Google Scholar
  71. Nötzli J, Huggel C, Hoelzle M, Haeberli W (2006) GIS-based modelling of rock-ice avalanches from Alpine permafrost areas. Comput Geosci 10(2):161–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O’Brien JS (2003) In: Rickenmann D, Chen C (eds) Debris-flows hazard mitigation: mechanics, predictions and assessment. Millpress, Rotterdam, pp 683–693Google Scholar
  73. OcCc (2007) Klimaänderung und die Schweiz 2050 - erwartete Auswirkungen auf Umwelt, Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft. Hohmann R (ed) OcCC and ProClim, Swiss Academy of Sciences, p 167Google Scholar
  74. Osti R, Egashira S (2009) Hydodynamic characteristics of the TAM Pokhari glacier lake outburst flood in the Mt. Everest region, Nepal. Hydrol Process 23:2943–2955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Paul F, Maisch M, Rothenbühler C, Hoelzle M, Haeberli W (2007) Calculation and visualisation of future glacier extent in the Swiss Alps by means of hypsographic modelling. Global Planet Change 55(4):343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Perlik M, Wissen U, Schuler M, Hofschreuder J, Jame A, Keiner M, Cavens D and Schmid WA (2008) Szenarien für die nachhaltige Siedlungs- und Infrastrukturentwicklung in der Schweiz (2005–2030). Nationales Forschungsprogramm NFP 54 “Nachhaltige Siedlungs- und Infrastrukturentwicklung” Zurich, p 312Google Scholar
  77. PLANAT (2004) Teilprojekt A: Gesamtübersicht. Strategie Naturgefahren Schweiz. Nationale Plattform Naturgefahren PLANAT, p 45Google Scholar
  78. PLANAT (2008) Risikoaversion. Entwicklung systematischer Instrumente zur Risiko- bzw. Sicherheitsbeurteilung. Zusammenfassender Bericht. Nationale Plattform Naturgefahren PLANAT, Bern, p 17Google Scholar
  79. PLANAT (2009) Schutzziel-Modell. Bericht Version 27. März 2009. Aktionsplan PLANAT 2006–2008. Nationale Plattform Naturgefahren PLANAT, Bern, p 17Google Scholar
  80. Raetzo H, Lateltin O, Bollinger D, Tripet JP (2002) Hazard assessment in Switzerland - codes of practice for mass movements. Bull Eng Geol Environ 61:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raymond M, Wegmann M, Funk M (2003) Inventar der gefährlichen Gletscher in der Schweiz. Mitteilung Nr. 182 der Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW) der ETH ZürichGoogle Scholar
  82. Reynolds JM (1998) Geohazards in engineering geology. In: Maund J, Eddleston M (eds) Geological Society Engineering Group Special Publication, London, pp 25–34Google Scholar
  83. Richardson SD, Reynolds JM (2000) An overview of glacial hazards in the Himalayas. Quater Int 65–66:31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Romstad B, Harbitz C, Domaas U (2009) A GIS method for assessment of rock slide tsunami hazard in all Norwegion lakes and reservoirs. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9(2):353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rothenbühler C (2006) GISALP- räumlich-zeitliche Modellierung der klimasensitiven Hochgebirgslandschaft des Oberengadins. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  86. Russel JS (1837) Report of the commitee on waves. In: Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of the Science, Liverpool. Mutty, pp 417–496Google Scholar
  87. Salzmann N, Kääb A, Huggel C, Allgöwer B, Haeberli W (2004) Assessment of the hazard potential of ice avalanches using remote sensing and GIS-modelling. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 58(2):74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Santi PM, Russell CP, Higgins JD, Spriet JI (2009) Modification and statistical analysis of the Colorado Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Eng Geol 104(1–2):55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schneider D, Huggel C, Haeberli W, Kaitna R (2011) Earth surface processes and landforms, vol. 36. Wiley, p 14, 1948–1966Google Scholar
  90. Solomon S, Quin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, 996 pGoogle Scholar
  91. Terrier S, Jordan F, Schleiss A, Huggel C, Haeberli W, Künzler M (2011) Melting glaciers as an opportunity to build new reservoirs. In: Proceedings of the 79th ICOLD annual meeting, 29 May to 03 June 2011, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  92. Uzielli M, Nadim F, Lacasse S, Kaynia AM (2008) A conceptual framework for quantitative estimation of physical vulnerability to landslides. Eng Geol 102(3–4):251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Volz C, Rousselot P, Vetsch D, Müller R, Fäh R, Boes R (2010) Numerical modeling of dam breaching processes due to overtopping flow. In: Proceedings of the 8th ICOLD European Club symposium. Innsbruck, pp 691–696Google Scholar
  94. Vuichard D, Zimmermann M (1987) The 1985 catastrophic drainage of a moraine-dammed lake, Khumbu Himal, Nepal - Cause and consequences. Mount Res Develop 7(2):91–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Walz A (2006) Land use modelling for an integrated approach to regional development in the Swiss Alps. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  96. Wegmann M, Bruderer A, Funk M, Keusen HR (2004) Partizipatives Verfahren zum Risikomanagement bei Naturgefahren - Angewendet für Gletschergefahren. In: Proceedings of the Interprävent 2004. Riva/Trient, pp 297–308Google Scholar
  97. Xin W, Shiyin L, Wanqin G, Junli X (2008) Assessment and simulation of glacier lake outburst floods for Longbasaba and Pida Lakes, China. Mount Res Develop 28(3/4):310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zemp M, Haeberli W, Hoelzle M, Paul F (2006) Alpine glaciers to disappear within decades? Geophys Res Lett 33:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zemp M, Hoelzle M, Haeberli W (2009) Six decades of glacier mass-balance observations: a review of the worldwide monitoring network. Ann Glaciol 50(50):101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zemp M, Kääb A, Hoelzle M, Haeberli W (2005) GIS-based modelling of glacial sediment balance. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 138:113–129Google Scholar
  101. Zemp M, Roer I, Kääb A, Hoelzle M, Paul F, Haeberli W (2008) Global glacier changes: facts and figures. UNEP and WGMS. 88 pGoogle Scholar
  102. Zweifel A, Minor HE (2004) Impulswellen: Effekte der Rutschdichte und der Wassertiefe. Mitteilungen 186 der Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW), ETH, Zürich, 208 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Schaub
    • 1
  • Wilfried Haeberli
    • 1
  • Christian Huggel
    • 1
  • Matthias Künzler
    • 1
  • Michael Bründl
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Warning and PreventionWSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLFDavosSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations