Paying in Kind for Crowdsourced Work in Developing Regions

  • Navkar Samdaria
  • Akhil Mathur
  • Ravin Balakrishnan
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7319)

Abstract

In developing regions, the reach of crowdsourcing services such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk) has been limited by the lack of adequate payment mechanisms and low visibility amongst the crowd. In this paper, we present a commodity based model for crowdsourcing where crowd workers get paid in kind in the form of a commodity instead of money. Our model makes crowdsourcing services more visible to users in developing regions and also addresses the issue of payment. We conducted two field studies in urban India to evaluate the applicability of our proposed model. Our results show that the commodity based crowdsourcing model reached workers with very different demographics from the typical mTurk workers. We also found that users preferred to receive a commodity instead of money as remuneration.

Keywords

crowdsourcing mobile phones humans as pervasive computing resources commodity exchange model developing regions Amazon Mechanical Turk India 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alt, F., Shirazi, A.S., Schmidt, A., Kramer, U., Nawax, Z.: Location-based Crowdsourcing: Extending Crowdsourcing to the Real World. In: ACM Nordic Conference on Human Computer Interactions, Reykjavik, IC (October 2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frei, B.: Paid Crowdsourcing: Current State & Progress towards Mainstream Business Use. Smartsheet White Paper (September 2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    BCG Report: The Internet’s new Billion: Digital Consumers in Brazil, Russia, India, China and Indonesia (September 2010) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eagle, N.: txteagle: Mobile Crowdsourcing. In: Aykin, N. (ed.) IDGD 2009. LNCS, vol. 5623, pp. 447–456. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khanna, S., Ratan, S., Davis, J., Thies, W.: Evaluating and Improving the Usability of Mechanical Turk for Low-Income Workers in India. In: Symposium on Computing for Development, DEV (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Okolloh, O.: Ushahidi or ’testimony’: Web 2.0 tools for crowdsourcing crisis information. Participatory Learning and Action (59) (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reserve Bank of India: Report on trend and banking in India (October 2009), http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Publications/PDFs/RTP081110FL.pdf
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Reddy, S., Estrin, D., Srivastava, M.: Recruitment Framework for Participatory Sensing Data Collections. In: Floréen, P., Krüger, A., Spasojevic, M. (eds.) Pervasive Computing. LNCS, vol. 6030, pp. 138–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ross, J., Irani, L., Silberman, M.S., Zaldivar, A., Tomlinson, B.: Who are the crowdworkers?: shifting demographics in mechanical turk. In: CHI 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, April 10-15 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Samasource website, http://www.samasource.org/
  13. 13.
    TeamLease Services. Indian Labour Report 2007: The Youth Unemployability Crisis (2007), http://www.teamlease.com/images/reports/Teamlease_LabourReport_2007.pdf
  14. 14.
    Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), http://www.trai.gov.in/Default.asp
  15. 15.
    Willett, W., Aoki, P., Kumar, N., Subramanian, S., Woodruff, A.: Common Sense Community: Scaffolding Mobile Sensing and Analysis for Novice Users. In: Floréen, P., Krüger, A., Spasojevic, M. (eds.) Pervasive Computing. LNCS, vol. 6030, pp. 301–318. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yan, T., Kumar, V., Ganesan, D.: Crowdsearch: Exploiting Crowds for Accurate Real-Time Image Search on Mobile Phones. In: ACM Mobisys, San Francisco, CA (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kube, S., Maréchal, M.A., Puppe, C.: The Currency of Reciprocity - Gift-Exchange in the Workplace. Institute of Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich (July 2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kurosaki, T.: Wages in Kind and Economic Development: Their Impacts on Labor Supply and Food Security of Rural Households in Developing Countries. Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gupta, A., Thies, W., Cutrell, E., Balakrishnan, R.: mClerk: Enabling Mobile Crowdsourcing in Developing Regions. In: CHI 2012, Austin, Texas, US, May 5-10 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Navkar Samdaria
    • 1
  • Akhil Mathur
    • 2
  • Ravin Balakrishnan
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Bell Labs IndiaAlcatel-LucentBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations