Transcriptomic and Proteomic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Swimming-Induced Exercise in Fish
The “Omics” revolution has brought along the possibility to dissect complex physiological processes, such as exercise, at the gene (genomics), mRNA (transcriptomics), protein (proteomics), metabolite (metabolomics), and other levels with unprecedented detail. To date, a few studies in mammals, including humans, have approached this issue by investigating the effects of exercise on the transcriptome as well as on the proteome of skeletal muscle. In fish, however, despite the successful development and application of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to study various physiological and pathological conditions over the last decade, no information is available on the application of transcriptomic or proteomic techniques to the study of the molecular effects of swimming-induced activity on skeletal muscle. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to review recent data on the transcriptomic and proteomic response of white and red skeletal muscle to sustained swimming in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), two economically important species.
The work from our laboratories described in this chapter was supported by grants from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN), Spain, to J.V.P. (CSD2007-0002 and AGL2009-07006) and to J.B. and J.F.-B. (AGL2009-12427). L.J.M. was supported by a FP7-PIIF-2009 fellowship (Marie Curie Action) from the European Commission (GLUCOSE USE IN FISH) with Grant Agreement number 235581. A.P.P was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship from the European Commission (REPRO-SWIM) with Grant Agreement number 219971. M.M.-P. was supported by a FI fellowship from the Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain. Current address for A.P.P. is: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES). Wageningen Aquaculture, Wageningen University & Research Centre, Korringaweg 5, 4401 NT Yerseke, The Netherlands. Wageningen Aquaculture is a consortium of IMARES (Institute for Marine Resources & Ecosystem Studies) and AFI (Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University), both part of Wageningen University & Research Centre (WUR).
- Felip O, Ibarz A, Fernández-Borràs J, Beltrán M, Martín-Pérez M, Planas JV, Blasco J (2012) Tracing metabolic routes of dietary carbohydrate and protein in rainbow trout using stable isotopes (13C-starch and 15N-protein): effects of gelatinization of starches and sustained swimming. Br J Nutr 107:834–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hwang I (2004) Proteomics approach in meat science: a model study for hunter L* value and drip loss. Food Sci Biotechnol 13:208–214Google Scholar
- Martin-Perez M, Fernandez-Borras J, Ibarz A, Millan-Cubillo A, Felip O, de Oliveira E, Blasco J (2012) New insights into fish swimming: a proteomic and isotopic approach in gilthead sea bream. J Proteome Res. doi: 10.1021/pr3002832
- Moyes CD, West TG (1995) Exercise metabolism of fish. In: Hochachka PW, Mommsen TP (eds) Metabolic biochemistry, vol 4., Biochemistry and molecular biology of fishesElsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 368–392Google Scholar
- Palstra AP, Crespo D, van den Thillart GEEJM, Planas JV (2010) Saving energy to fuel exercise: swimming suppresses oocyte development and down-regulates ovarian transcriptomic response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299:R486–R499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Sanchez J, Bermejo-Nogales A, Alvar Calduch-Giner J, Kaushik S, Sitja-Bobadilla A (2011) Molecular characterization and expression analysis of six peroxiredoxin paralogous genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): insights from fish exposed to dietary, pathogen and confinement stressors. Fish Shellfish Immunol 31:294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Timmons JA, Larsson O, Jansson E, Fischer H, Gustafsson T, Greenhaff PL, Ridden J, Rachman J, Peyrard-Janvid M, Wahlestedt C, Sundberg CJ (2005) Human muscle gene expression responses to endurance training provide a novel perspective on Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FASEB J 19:750–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar