Cleft Jaw Deformities and Their Management

  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
Chapter

Abstract

The successful reconstruction of cleft lip and palate is inextricably connected with orthodontic care and skeletal surgery. It is now clear that orthognathic surgery is a necessary component of treatment for the majority of individuals born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), and isolated cleft palate (ICP) that have undergone palate repair in infancy.

Keywords

Distraction Osteogenesis Orthognathic Surgery Mixed Dentition Alveolar Cleft Cleft Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abyholm F, Bergland O, Semb G (1981) Secondary bone grafting of alveolar clefts. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 15:127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksu M, Saglam-Aydinatay B et al (2010) Skeletal and dental stability after maxillary distraction with a rigid external device in adult cleft lip and palate patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:254–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Waheidi EMH, Harradine NWT, Orth M (1998) Soft tissue profile changes in patients with cleft lip and ­palate following maxillary osteotomies. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 35:535–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araujo A, Schendel SA, Wolfort LM, Epker BN (1978) Total maxillary advancement with and without bone grafting. J Oral Surg 36:849–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell WH, Levy BM (1971) Revascularization and bone healing after posterior maxillary osteotomy. J Oral Surg 29:313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell WH, You ZH, Finn RA et al (1995) Wound healing after multisegmental Le Fort I osteotomy and transection of the descending palatine vessels. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 53:1425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkowitz S (1978) State of the art in cleft palate orofacial growth and dentistry: a historical perspective. Am J Orthod 74:564–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkowitz S, Mejia M, Bystrik A (2004) A comparison of the effects of the Latham-Millard procedure with those of a conservative treatment approach for dental occlusion and facial aesthetics in unilateral and bilateral complete cleft lip and palate: part 1. Dental occlusion. Plast Reconstr Surg 113:1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyne PJ, Sands NR (1972) Secondary bone grafting of residual alveolar and palatal clefts. J Oral Surg 30:87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Braun TW (1992) (Discussion of) Modification of the maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy in cleft-orthognathic surgery: The unilateral cleft lip and palate deformity. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 50:675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braun TW, Sotereanos GC (1980) Orthognathic and secondary cleft reconstruction of adolescent patients with cleft palate. J Oral Surg 38:425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Braun TW, Sotereanos GC (1981) Orthognathic surgical reconstruction of cleft palate deformities in adolescents. J Oral Surg 39:255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Canady JW, Thompson SA, Colburn A (1997) Craniofacial growth after iatrogenic cleft palate repair in a fetal bovine model. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 34:69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Capelozza Filho L, Normando AD, da Silva Filho OG (1996) Isolated influences of lip and palate surgery on facial growth: comparison of operated and unoperated male adults with UCLP. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 33:51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cassolato SF, Ross B, Daskalogiannakis J et al (2009) Treatment of dental anomalies in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate at Sick Kids Hospital, Toronto. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 46(2):166–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Champy M (1980) Surgical treatment of midface deformities. Head Neck Surg 2:451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chanchareonsook N, Samman N, Whitehill TL (2006) The effect of cranio-maxillofacial osteotomies and distraction osteogenesis on speech and velopharyngeal status: a critical review. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 43:477–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chanchareonsook N, Whitehill TL, Samman N (2007) Speech outcome and velopharyngeal function in cleft palate: comparison of Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis – early results. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 44:23–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen ZQ, Qian YF, Wang GM, Shen G (2009) Sagittal maxillary growth in patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 46:664–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen P, Por Y et al (2011) Maxillary distraction osteogenesis in the adolescent cleft patient: three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of linear and volumetric changes over five years. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 40:445–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheung LK, Chua HD (2006) A meta-analysis of cleft maxillary osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 35:14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cho BC, Kyung HM (2006) Distraction osteogenesis of the hypoplastic midface using a rigid external distraction system: the results of a one- to six-year follow-up. Plast Reconstr Surg 118:1201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen SR, Corrigan M, Wilmot J, Trotman CA (1995) Cumulative operative procedures in patients aged 14 years and older with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. Plast Reconstr Surg 96:267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen SR, Burnstein FD, Stewart MB, Rathburn MA (1997) Maxillary-midface distraction in children with cleft lip and palate: a preliminary report. Plast Reconstr Surg 99:1421–1428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Correa Normando AD, da Silva Filho OG, Capelozza Filho L (1992) Influence of surgery on maxillary growth in cleft lip and/or palate patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 20:111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Daskalogiannakis J, Mehta M (2009) The need for orthognathic surgery in patients with repaired complete unilateral and complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 46:498–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Daskalogiannakis J, Ross RB (1997) Effect of alveolar bone grafting in the mixed dentition on maxillary growth in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 34:455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. David DJ, Anderson PJ et al (2006) From birth to maturity: a group of patients who have completed their protocol management. Part II. Isolated cleft palate. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:515–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeLuke DM, Marchand A, Robles EC, Fox P (1997) Facial growth and the need for orthognathic surgery after cleft palate repair: literature review and report of 28 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55:694–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Des Prez JD, Kiehn CL (1974) Surgical positioning of the maxilla: symposium on management of cleft lip and palate and associated deformities. Ann Plast Reconstr Surg 8:222Google Scholar
  31. Dodson TB, Neuenschwander MC (1997) Maxillary perfusion during Le Fort I osteotomy after ligation of the descending palatine artery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55:51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dodson TB, Neuenschwander MC, Bays RA (1994) Intraoperative assessment of maxillary perfusion during Le Fort I osteotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 52:827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dongmei H, Genecov DG, Barcelo R (2010) Nonunion of the external maxillary distraction in cleft lip and palate: analysis of possible reasons. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:2402–2411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Drommer R (1986) The history of the “Le Fort I-Osteotomy”. J Maxillofac Surg 14:119–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Drommer R, Luhr HG (1981) The stabilization of osteotomized maxillary segments with Luhr miniplates in secondary cleft surgery. J Maxillofac Surg 9:166–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Erbe M, Stoelinga PJW, Leenen RJ (1996) Long-term results of segmental repositioning of the maxilla in cleft palate patients without previously grafted ­alveolo-palatal clefts. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 24:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Escenazi LB, Schendel SA (1992) An analysis of Le Fort I maxillary advancement in cleft lip and palate patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 90:779–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ewing M, Ross RB (1993) Soft tissue response to orthognathic surgery in persons with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 30:320–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Felstead AM, Deacon S, Revington P (2010) The outcome for secondary alveolar bone grafting in the southwest UK region post-CSAG. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 47:359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Figueroa AA, Polley JW, Ko EW (1999) Maxillary distraction for the management of cleft maxillary hypoplasia with a rigid external distraction system. Semin Orthod 5:46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Figueroa AA, Polley JW, Friede H et al (2004) Long-term skeletal stability after maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in cleft maxillary deformities. Plast Reconstr Surg 114:138Google Scholar
  42. Filho LC (1996) Isolated influences of lip and palate surgery on facial growth: comparison of operated and unoperated male adults. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 33:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fitzpatrick B (1977) Midface osteotomy in the adolescent cleft patient. Aust Dent J 22:338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Freihofer HPM Jr (1976) The lip profile after correction of retro-maxillism in cleft and non-cleft patients. J Maxillofac Surg 4:136–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Freihofer HPM Jr (1977a) Changes in nasal profile after maxillary advancement in cleft and non-cleft patients. J Maxillofac Surg 5:20–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freihofer HPM Jr (1977b) Results of osteotomies of the facial skeleton in adolescence. J Maxillofac Surg 5:267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Friede H, Lilja J (1994) Dentofacial morphology in adolescent or early adult patients with cleft lip and palate after a treatment regime that included vomer flap surgery and pushback palate repair. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 28:113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fudalej P, Hortis-Dzierzbicka M, Obloj B, Miller-Drabikowska D, Dudkiewicz Z, Romanowska A (2009a) Treatment outcome after one-stage repair in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate assessed with the Goslon Yardstick. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 46:374–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fudalej P et al (2009b) Dental arch relationship in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following Wassaw (One-stage repair) and Oslo Procols. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 46:648–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Garrison BT, Lapp TH, Bussard DA (1987) The stability of the Le Fort I maxillary osteotomies in patients with simultaneous alveolar cleft bone grafts. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 45:761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Georgiade NG (1974) Mandibular osteotomy for the ­correction of facial disproportion in the cleft lip and palate patient. Symposium on management of cleft lip and palate and associated deformities. Plast Reconstr Surg 8:238Google Scholar
  52. Gillies HD, Millard DR Jr (1957) The principles and art of plastic surgery. Little and Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  53. Gillies HD, Rowe NL (1954) L’ostéotomie du maxillaire supérieur enoisagée essentiellement dans le cas de bec-de-lièvre total. Rev Stomatol 55:545–552Google Scholar
  54. Gnoinski W (1987) Early identification of candidates for corrective maxillary osteotomy in cleft lip and palate group. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 21:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Good PM, Mulliken JB, Padwa BL (2007) Frequency of Le Fort I osteotomy after repaired cleft lip and palate or cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 44:396–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grayson BH, Cutting CB (2011) Presurgical nasoalveolar orthopedic molding in primary correction of the nose, lip, and alveolus of infants bone with unilateral and bilateral clefts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 38:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Guyette TW, Polley JW, Figueroa A, Smith BE (2001) Changes in speech following maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 38:199–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hall HD, Posnick JC (1984) Early results of secondary bone grafts in 106 alveolar clefts. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 41:289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harada K, Baba Y, Ohyama K et al (2001) Maxillary distraction osteogenesis for cleft lip and palate children using an external, adjustable, rigid distraction device: a report of 2 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 59:1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harada K, Ishii Y, Ishii M et al (2002) Effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis on velopharyngeal function: a pilot study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harada K, Sato M, Omura K (2006) Long-term maxillomandibular skeletal and dental changes in children with cleft lip and palate after maxillary distraction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102:292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harrison JW (1992) Dental implants to rehabilitate a patient with an unrepaired complete cleft. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 29:485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hathaway RR, Eppley BLE, Hennon DK, Nelson CL, Sadove AM (1999) Primary alveolar cleft bone grafting in UCLP: arch dimensions at age 8. J Craniofac Surg 10:58–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hathaway R, Daskalogiannakis J et al (2011) The Americleft study: an inter-center study of treatment outcomes for patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Part 2. Dental arch relationship. Cleft Palate Crainofac J 48:244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hedemark A, Freihofer HP Jr (1978) The behavior of the maxilla in vertical movements after Le Fort I osteotomy. J Maxillofac Surg 6:244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heidbuchel KLWM, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Freihofer HPM (1994) Facial growth in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate: a cephalometric study. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 31:210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Henkel KO, Gundlach KKH (1997) Analysis of primary gingivoperiosteoplasty in alveolar cleft repair. Part I: facial growth. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 25:266–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hirano A, Suzuki H (2001) Factors related to relapse after Le Fort I maxillary advancement osteotomy in patients with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 38:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hochban W, Ganss C, Austermann KH (1993) Long-term results after maxillary advancement in patients with clefts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 30:237–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Houston WJB, James DR, Jones E, Kavvadia S (1989) Le Fort I maxillary osteotomies in cleft palate cases. Surgical changes and stability. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 17:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hsieh CH et al (2010) The effects of gingivoperiosteoplasty on facial growth in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 47:439–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Huang CS, Harikrishnan P, Liao YF et al (2007) Long-term follow-up after maxillary distraction osteogenesis in growing children with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 44:274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hui E, Hägg EU, Tideman H (1994) Soft tissue changes following maxillary osteotomies in cleft lip and palate and non-cleft patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 22:182–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jackson IT (1978) Cleft and jaw deformities. In: Whitaker LA, Randall P (eds) Symposium on reconstruction of jaw deformities. C.V. Mosby Company, St Louis, p 113Google Scholar
  75. James D, Brook K (1985) Maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate deformity – the alternative surgical approach. Eur J Orthop 7:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Janulewicz J, Costello BJ, Buckley MJ, Ford MD, Close J, Gassner R (2004) The effects of Le Fort I osteotomies on velopharyngeal and speech functions in cleft patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62:308–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jorgenson RJ, Shapiro SD, Odiner KL (1984) Studies on facial growth and arch size in cleft lip and plate. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol 4:33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kanno T, Mitsugi M, Hosoe M et al (2008) Long-term skeletal stability after maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:1833–1846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kapp-Simon KA (1995) Psychological interventions for the adolescent with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 32:104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kiehn CL, DesPrez JD, Brown F (1968) Maxillary osteotomy for late correction of occlusion and appearance in cleft lip and palate patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 42:203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ko EW, Figueroa AA, Guyette TW, Polley JW, Law WR (1999) Velopharyngeal changes after maxillary advancement in cleft patients with distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device: 1-year cephalometric follow-up. J Craniofac Surg 10:312–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lanigan DT (1995) Wound healing after multisegmental Le Fort I osteotomy and transection of the descending palatine vessels (discussion). J Oral Maxillofac Surg 53:1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laspos CP, Kyrkanides S, Moss ME et al (1997a) Mandibular and maxillary asymmetry in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 34:232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Laspos CP, Kyrkanides S, Tallents RH et al (1997b) Mandibular asymmetry in noncleft and unilateral cleft lip and palate individuals. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 34:410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Leonard BJ, Brust JD, Abrahams G et al (1991) Self-concept of children and adolescents with cleft lip and/or palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 28:347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Linton JL (1998) Comparative study of diagnostic measures in borderline surgical cases of unilateral cleft lip and palate and noncleft class III malocclusions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 113:526–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lisson JA, Trankmann J (1997) Comparative surgery of osteotomized and nonosteotomized BCLP patients. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 34(5):430–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Luhr HG (1968) Zur Stabilen Osteosynthese bei Unterkiefer-frakturen. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z 23:754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lund TW, Wade M (1993) Use of osseointegrated implants to support a maxillary denture for a patient with repaired cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 30:418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mansour S, Burstone C, Legan H (1983) An evaluation of soft-tissue changes resulting from Le Fort I maxillary surgery. Am J Orthod 84:37–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Marrinan EM, LaBrie RA, Mulliken JB (1998) Velopharyngeal function in nonsyndromic cleft palate: relevance of surgical technique, age at repair, and cleft type. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 35:95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mars M, Houston WJB (1990) A preliminary study of facial growth and morphology in unoperated male unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects over 13 years of age. Cleft Palate J 27:7–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mars M, Plint DA, Houston WJB, Bergland O, Semb G (1987) The Goslon Yardstick: a new system of assessing dental arch relationships in children with unilateral clefts of the lip and palate. Cleft Palate J 24:314–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mars M, Asher-McDade C, Brattström V, Mars M, McWilliam J, Mølsted K, Plint DA, Prahl-Andersen B, Semb G, Shaw WC et al (1992) A six-center international study of treatment outcomes in patients with clefts of the lip and palate. Part 3: dental arch relationships. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 29:405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Matic DB, Power SM (2008) The effects of gingivoperiosteoplasty following alveolar molding with a pun-retained Latham appliance versus secondary bone grafting on midfacial growth in patients with unilateral clefts. Plast Reconstr Surg 122:863–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McCance AM, Orth M, Moss JP et al (1997) Three-dimensional analysis techniques. Part 4: three-dimensional analysis of bone, and soft tissue to bone ratio of movements in 24 cleft patients following Le Fort I osteotomy: a preliminary report. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 43:58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McComb R, Marrinan E et al (2011) Predictors of velopharyngeal insufficiency after Le Fort I maxillary advancement in patients with cleft palate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:2226–2232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McIntyre GT, Devlin MF (2010) Secondary alveolar bone grafting (CLEFTSiS) 2000-2004. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 47(1):66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Millard DR, Latham RA et al (1990) Improved primary surgical and dental treatment of clefts. Plast Reconstr Surg 86:856–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Millard DR, Latham RA et al (1999) Cleft lip and palate treated by presurgical orthopedics, gingivoperiosteoplasty, and lip adhesion (POPLA) compared with previous lip adhesion method: a preliminary study of serial dental casts. Plast Reconstr Surg 103:1630–1644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Molina F, Ortiz Monasterio F, de la Paz AM, Barrera J (1998) Maxillary distraction: aesthetic and functional benefits in cleft lip-palate and prognathic patients during mixed dentition. Plast Reconstr Surg 101:951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mølsted K, Brattström V, Prahl-Andersen B, Shaw WC, Semb G (2005) The Eurocleft study: intercenter study of treatment outcomes in patients with complete cleft lip and palate. Part 3: dental arch relationships. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 42:78–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Motohashi N, Kuroda T, Filho LC et al (1994) P-A cephalometric analysis of nonoperated adult cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 31:193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nanda SK (1988) Patterns of vertical growth in the face. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 93:103–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nollet PJPM, Katsaros C, Vant’t Hof MA, Semb G, Shaw WC, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM (2005) Treatment outcome after two-stage palatal closure in unilateral cleft lip and palate: a comparison with Eurocleft. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 42:512–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nordquist GG, McNeill RW (1975) Orthodontic vs restorative treatment of the congenitally absent lateral incisor – long-term periodontal and occlusal evaluation. J Periodontol 46:139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Obwegeser HL (1966) Correction of the facial appearance of harelip and cleft palate patients by surgery on the jaws. Exerpta Medica International Congress Series No 141. Reconstructive surgery. Thermal injury and other subjects, pp 110–117Google Scholar
  108. Obwegeser HL (1967) Surgery as an adjunct to orthodontics in normal and cleft palate patients. Trans Eur Orthod Soc 343–353Google Scholar
  109. Obwegeser HL (1969a) Surgical correction of deformities of the jaws in adult cleft cases. In: Paper read at the first international conference on cleft lip and palate, Houston, pp 14–17Google Scholar
  110. Obwegeser HL (1969b) Surgical correction of small or retrodisplaced maxillae: the “dish-face” deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg 43:351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Obwegeser HL (1971) Surgical correction of maxillary deformities. In: Grabb WC, Rosenstein SW, Bzoch KR (eds) Cleft lip and palate. Little and Brown, Boston, pp 515–556Google Scholar
  112. Obwegeser HL (2007) Orthognathic surgery and a tale of how three procedures came to be: a letter to the next generations of surgeons. Clin Plast Surg 34:331–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Obwegeser HL, Lello GE, Farmand M (1985) Correction of secondary cleft deformities, Chap. 13. In: Bell WH (ed) Surgical correction of dentofacial deformities. New concepts, vol III. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 592–638Google Scholar
  114. Palmer CR, Hamlen M, Ross RB, Lindsay WK (1969) Cleft palate repair: comparison of the results of two surgical techniques. Can J Surg 12:32–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Parel SM, Branemark PI, Jansson T (1986) Osseointegration in maxillofacial prosthetics. Part I: intraoral applications. J Prosthet Dent 55:490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Perrott D, Sharma AB, Vargevik K (1994) Endosseous implants for pediatric patients: unknown factors, indications, contraindications, and special considerations. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 6:79Google Scholar
  117. Phillips JH, Klaiman P, Delorey R, MacDonald DB (2005) Predictors of velopharyngeal insufficiency in cleft ­palate orthognathic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 115:681–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Polley JW, Figueroa AA (1997) Management of severe maxillary deficiency in childhood and adolescence through distraction osteogenesis with an external, adjustable, rigid distraction device. J Craniofac Surg 8:181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Polley JW, Figueroa AA (1998) Rigid external distraction: its application in cleft maxillary deformities. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Poole MD, Robinson PP, Nunn ME (1986) Maxillary advancement in cleft lip and palate patients: a modification of the Le Fort I osteotomy and preliminary results. J Maxillofac Surg 14:123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Posnick JC (1991a) (Discussion of) Orthognathic surgery in cleft patients treated by early bone grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg 87:840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Posnick JC (1991b) Orthognathic surgery in the cleft patient. In: Russel RC (ed) Instructional courses, plastic surgery education foundation, vol 4. CV Mosby Co, St Louis, pp 129–157Google Scholar
  123. Posnick JC (1996) Orthognathic surgery for the cleft lip and palate patient. Semin Orthod 2(3):205–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Posnick JC (1997) The treatment of secondary and residual dentofacial deformities in the cleft patient: Surgical and orthodontic therapy. Secondary management of craniofacial disorders (Cohen Sr, ed). Clin Plast Surg 24(3):583–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Posnick JC (2000a) The staging of cleft lip and palate reconstruction: Infancy through adolescence, Chap. 32. In: Posnick JC (ed) Craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery in children and young adults. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 785–826Google Scholar
  126. Posnick JC (2000b) Cleft lip and palate: bone grafting and management of residual oro-nasal fistula, Chap. 33. In: Posnick JC (ed) Craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery in children and young adults. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 827–859Google Scholar
  127. Posnick JC (2000c) Cleft-orthognathic surgery: the unilateral cleft lip and palate deformity, Chap. 34. In: Posnick JC (ed) Craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery in children and young adults. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 860–907Google Scholar
  128. Posnick JC (2000d) Cleft-orthognathic surgery: the bilateral cleft lip and palate deformity, Chap. 35. In: Posnick JC (ed) Craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery in children and young adults. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 908–950Google Scholar
  129. Posnick JC (2000e) Cleft-orthognathic surgery: the isolated cleft palate deformity, Chap. 36. In: Posnick JC (ed) Craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery in children and young adults. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 951–978Google Scholar
  130. Posnick JC, Agnihotri N (2011) Managing chronic nasal airway obstruction at the time of orthognathic surgery: a twofer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:695–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Posnick JC, Dagys AP (1994) Skeletal stability and relapse patterns after Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy fixed with miniplates: the unilateral cleft lip and palate deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg 94(7):924–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Posnick JC, Ewing MP (1990) Skeletal stability after Le Fort I maxillary advancement in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Plast Reconstr Surg 85(5):706–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Posnick JC, Ricalde P (2004) Cleft-orthognathic surgery. Clin Plast Surg 31(2):315–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Posnick JC, Ruiz R (2000) (Discussion of) Repair of large anterior palatal fistulas using thin tongue flaps. Ann Plast Surg 45:114–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Posnick JC, Taylor M (1994) Skeletal stability and relapse patterns after Le Fort I osteotomy using miniplate fixation in patients with isolated cleft palate. Plast Reconstr Surg 94:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Posnick JC, Tompson B (1992) Modification of the maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy in cleft-orthognathic surgery: the unilateral cleft lip and palate deformity. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 50(7):666–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Posnick JC, Tompson B (1993) Modification of the maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy in cleft-orthognathic surgery: the bilateral cleft lip and palate deformity. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 51(1):2–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Posnick JC, Tompson B (1995) Cleft-orthognathic surgery: complications and long-term results. Plast Reconstr Surg 96(2):255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Posnick JC, Al-Qattan MM, Pron G (1994) Facial sensibility in cleft and non-cleft adolescents one year after undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy. Plast Reconstr Surg 194(3):431–435Google Scholar
  140. Pruzansky FH (1985) Long–term effects of premaxillary setback on facial skeletal profile in complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate J 22:97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Renkielska A, Wojtaszek-Slominska A et al (2005) Early cleft lip repair in children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. A case against primary alveolar repair. Ann Plast Surg 54:595–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Roberts HG, Semb G, Hathorn I, Killingback N (1996) Facial growth in patients with unilateral clefts of the lip and palate: a two-center study. Cleft Palate Craniofacial J 31:372–375Google Scholar
  143. Robertsson S, Mohlin B (2000) The congenitally missing upper lateral incisor: a retrospective study of orthodontic space closure versus restorative treatment. Eur J Orthod 22:697–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rosenstein SW (1997) Facial growth and the need for orthognathic surgery after cleft palate repair: Literature review and report of 28 cases (discussion). J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55:698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ross BR (1987) Treatment variables affecting facial growth in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Part 7: an overview of treatment and facial growth. Cleft Palate J 24:71–77Google Scholar
  146. Samman N, Cheung LK, Tideman H (1994) A comparison of alveolar bone grafting with and without simultaneous maxillary osteotomies in cleft palate patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 23:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sandham A, Murray JAM (1993) Nasal septal deformity in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 30:222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Schnitt DE, Agir H, David DJ (2004) From birth to maturity: a group of patients who have completed their protocol management. Part I. Unilateral cleft lip and palate. Plast Reconstr Surg 113:805–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shaw WC, Asher-McDade C, Brattstrom V et al (1992) A six-center international study of treatment outcomes in patients with clefts of the lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 29:393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sinko K, Caacbay E, Eagsch R, Turhani D, Baumann A, Mars M (2008) The Goslon Yardstick in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate: review of a Vienna sample. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 45:87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sinn DP (1980) Simultaneous maxillary expansion and advancement, repair of oronasal fistula, and bone grafting of the alveolar cleft. In: Bell WH, Proffit WR, White RP (eds) Surgical correction of dentofacial deformities. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  152. Skoog T (1965) The use of periosteal flaps in the repair of cleft of the primary palate. Cleft Palate J 2:332–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Smabel Z (1994) Treatment effects on facial development in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 31:437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Steinkamm W (1938) Die Pseudo-Progenie und ihre Behandlung. Inaugural dissertation, University BerlinGoogle Scholar
  155. Stoelinga PJ, vd Vijver HR, Leenen RJ et al (1987) The prevention of relapse after maxillary osteotomies in cleft palate patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 15:325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Stoelinga PJ, Haers PE, Lennen RJ et al (1990) Late management of secondarily grafted clefts. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 19:91Google Scholar
  157. Susami T, Ogihara Y, Matsuzaki M, Sakiyama M, Takato T, Shaw WC, Semb G (2006) Assessment of dental arch relationships in Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 43:96–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Suzuki A, Takahama Y (1992a) Maxillary lateral incisor of subjects with cleft lip and/or palate: part 1. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 29:376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Suzuki A, Takahama Y (1992b) Maxillary lateral incisor of subjects with cleft lip and/or palate: part 2. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 29:380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Suzuki EY, Motohashi N, Ohyama K (2004) Longitudinal dento-skeletal changes in UCLP patients following maxillary distraction osteogenesis using RED system. J Med Dent Sci 51:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Takahashi T, Fukuda M, Yamaguchi T et al (1997a) Use of an osseointegrated implant for dental rehabilitation after cleft repair by periosteoplasty: a case report. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 35:268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Takahashi T, Fukuda M, Yamaguchi T et al (1997b) Use of endosseous implants for dental reconstruction of patients with grafted alveolar clefts. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55:576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tessier P, Tulasne JF (1984) Secondary repair of cleft lip deformity. Clin Plast Surg 11:747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Tomanova M, Mullerova Z (1994) Growth of the dental arch in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate after primary periosteoplasty. Acta Chir Plast 36:119–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Trindale IE, Yamashita RP, Suguimoto RM, Mazzottini R, Trindale AS (2003) Effects of orthognathic surgery on speech and breathing of subjects with cleft lip and palate: acoustic and aerodynamic assessment. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 40:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Tulloch JFC (1993) A six-center international study of treatment outcome in patients with clefts of the lip and palate: evaluation of maxillary asymmetry (commentary). Cleft Palate Craniofac J 30:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Turvey TA (1991) Use of the Branemark implant in the cleft palate patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 28:304Google Scholar
  168. Turvey TA, Vig KWL, Fonseca RJ (1996) Maxillary advancement and contouring in the presence of cleft lip and palate. In: Turvey TA, Vig KWL, Fonseca RJ (eds) Facial clefts and craniosynostosis: principles and management. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 441–503Google Scholar
  169. Verdi FJ Jr, Shanzi GL, Cohen SR et al (1991) Use of the Branemark implant in the cleft palate patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 28:301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ward-Booth RP, Bhatia SN, Moos KF (1984) A cephalometric analysis of the Le Fort II osteotomy in the adult cleft patient. J Maxillofac Surg 12:208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Westbrook MT Jr, West RA, McNeil RW (1983) Simultaneous maxillary advancement and closure of bilateral alveolar clefts and oronasal fistulas. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 41:257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Williams AC, Bearn D, Mildinhall S, Murphy T, Sell D, Shaw WC, Murray JJ, Sandy JR (2001) Cleft lip and palate care in the United Kingdom – the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) study. Part 2: dentofacial outcomes and patient satisfaction. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 38:24–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Willmar K (1974) On Le Fort I osteotomy: a follow-up study of 106 operated patients with maxillo-facial deformity. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 12(suppl 1):1–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wiltfang J, Hirschfelder U, Neukam FW et al (2002) Long-term results of distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla and midface. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 40:473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Witzel MA, Munro IR (1977) Velopharyngeal insufficiency after maxillary advancement. Cleft Palate J 14:176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Wolford LM (1992) Effects of orthognathic surgery on nasal form and function in the cleft patient. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 29:546–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wolford LM, Karras SC, Mehra P (2001a) Considerations for orthognathic surgery during growth: part 1. Mandibular deformities. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 119:95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wolford LM, Karras SC, Mehra P (2001b) Considerations for orthognathic surgery during growth: part 2. Maxillary deformities. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 119:102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wolford LM, Cassano DS et al (2008) Orthognathic surgery in the young cleft patient: preliminary study on subsequent facial growth. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:2524–2536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zachrisson BU, Stenvik A (2004) Single implants – optimal therapy for missing lateral incisors? Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 126:13A–15ACrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jeffrey C. Posnick 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
    • 1
  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
    • 2
  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
    • 3
  • Jeffrey C. Posnick
    • 4
  1. 1.Posnick Center for Facial Plastic SurgeryChevy ChaseUSA
  2. 2.Georgetown UniversityWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.University of Maryland, Baltimore College of Dental SurgeryBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Howard University College of DentistryWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations