Evolution of Multipartite Genomes in Prokaryotes
Recent findings have shed light on the interplay and roles of multipartite genome structure in relation to bacterial survival and specialization. The majority of bacteria with two chromosomes are members of the Proteobacteria group and recent evidence suggests that the primary (CI) and the accessory chromosomes (CII) are essential and ancient partners of these complex prokaryotic genomes. However, accessory chromosomes have evolved more rapidly to provide increased metabolic plasticity as the CI encodes more essential proteins necessary for cell survival. The flexibility and the high divergence of CII may allow increased adaptability to specialized environments in which the possession of a single chromosome may not fully permit. Models and hypotheses pertaining to the formation of accessory chromosomes and the roles of different inherent genomic factors integral to the evolution of the accessory chromosomes in bacteria such as evolutionary constraints, horizontal gene transfer, partitioning of genes representing different COGs, gene regulation mechanisms, and replication mechanisms are discussed in this chapter.
KeywordsHorizontal Gene Transfer Codon Usage Bias Horizontal Gene Transfer Event Multiple Chromosome Brucella Melitensis
This work was supported by the Enhancement Grant for Research (EGR) from Sam Houston State University to Madhusudan Choudhary.
- Blattner FR, Plunkett G 3rd, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD, Rode CK, Mayhew GF, Gregor J, Davis NW, Kirkpatrick HA, Goeden MA, Rose DJ, Mau B, Shao Y (1997) The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 277(5331):1453–1462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heidelberg JF, Eisen JA, Nelson WC, Clayton RA, Gwinn ML, Dodson RJ, Haft DH, Hickey EK, Peterson JD, Umayam L, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Read TD, Tettelin H, Richardson D, Ermolaeva MD, Vamathevan J, Bass S, Qin H, Dragoi I, Sellers P, McDonald L, Utterback T, Fleishmann RD, Nierman WC, White O, Salzberg SL, Smith HO, Colwell RR, Mekalanos JJ, Venter JC, Fraser CM (2000) DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406(6795):477–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carins J (1963) The bacterial chromosome and its manner of replication as seen by autoradiography. J Mol Biol 6(3):208–213Google Scholar
- Kunst F, Ogasawara N, Moszer I, Albertini AM, Alloni G, Azevedo V, Bertero MG, Bessieres P, Bolotin A, Borchert S, Borriss R, Boursier L, Brans A, Braun M, Brignell SC, Bron S, Brouillet S, Bruschi CV, Caldwell B, Capuano V, Carter NM, Choi SK, Codani JJ, Connerton IF, Danchin A et al (1997) The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Nature 390(6657):249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mackenzie C, Choudhary M, Larimer FW, Predki PF, Stilwagen S, Armitage JP, Barber RD, Donohue TJ, Hosler JP, Newman JE, Shapleigh JP, Sockett RE, Zeilstra-Ryalls J, Kaplan S (2001) The home stretch, a first analysis of the nearly completed genome of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Photosynth Res 70(1):19–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mackenzie C, Kaplan S, Choudhary M (2004) Multiple chromosomes: intracellular mechanism for generating sequence diversity. In: Miller RV, Day MJ (eds) Microbial evolution: gene establishment, survival, and exchange. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 82–101Google Scholar
- Zhou Y, Landweber LF (2007) BLASTO: a tool for searching orthologous groups. Nucleic Acids Res 35(Web Server issue): W678–W682Google Scholar