Celestial Reference System

  • Michael Soffel
  • Ralf Langhans
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)


According to IAU 2000 Resolution B1.3 (e.g., Soffel et al., 2003), the Barycentric Celestial Reference System (BCRS) is defined by the form of the BCRS metric tensor that agrees with our canonical barycentric one (3.2). As we have noted earlier, this form of the metric tensor implies that all kinds of material or energy outside the solar system have been ignored.


Very Long Baseline Interferometry Proper Motion Very Long Baseline Interferometry Observation International Astronomical Union Hipparcos Catalog 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Böhm J, Schuh H (2004) Vienna mapping functions in VLBI analyses, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01603ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Böhm J, Böhm S, Nilsson T, Pany A, Plank L, Spicakova H, Teke K, Schuh H (2011) The new Vienna VLBI Software VieVS. Geodesy for Planet Earth. In: Kenyon S, Pacino MC, Marti U (eds) Proceedings of the 2009 IAG Symposium, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 31 August 2011–4 September 2009. International Association of Geodesy Symposia Series, vol 136, ISBN 978-3-642-20337-4Google Scholar
  3. Charlot P (1990) Radio-source structure in astrometric and geodetic very long baseline interferometry. Astron J 99:1309–1326ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooperstock F, Faraoni V, Vollick D (1998) The influence of the cosmological expansion on local systems. Ap J 503:61–66ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Damour T, Soffel M, Xu C (1994) General-relativistic Celestial mechanics IV. Phys Rev D 49:618MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fedorov PN, Akhmetov VS, Bobylev VV, Gontcharov GA (2010) The XPM catalogue as a realization of the ICRS in optical and near-infrared ranges of wavelengthsm. Mon Not Roy Astron Soc 415:665–672ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fey A, Charlot P (1997) VLBA observations of Radio reference frame sources, II. Astrometric suitability based on observed structure. Ap J Suppl 111:95Google Scholar
  8. Fey A, Gordon D, Jacobs C (eds) (2009) IERS Technical Notes, No 35, BKG, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  9. Fricke W, Schwan H, Lederle T, Bastian U, Bien R, Burkhardt G, du Mont B, Hering R, Jährling R, JahreißH, Röser S, Schwerdtfeger H-M, Walter HG (1988) Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5), Part 1. The Basic Fundamental Stars. Veröffentlichungen Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, No. 32, Verlag G. Braun, KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  10. Gubanov V, Rusinov Y, Surkis I, Kurdubov S, Shabun C (2004) Project: Global analysis of 1979–2004 VLBI data. In: Vandenberg NV, Baver KD (eds) International Service for Geodesy and Astrometry, 2004 General Metting Proceedings, Ottawa, Canada, NASA/CP-2204-212255, pp 315–319Google Scholar
  11. Hambly NC, Irwin MJ, MacGillivray HT, Irwin MJ, MacGillivray HT (2001) The SuperCOSMOS Sky survey, Paper I: Introduction and description. Mon Not Roy Astr Soc 326:1279, 1295ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hambly N, Read M, Mann R, Sutorius E, Bond I, MacGillivray H, Williams P, Lawrence A (2004) The SuperCOSMOS Science archive, astronomical data analysis software and systems (ADASS) XIII. In: Ochsenbein F, Allen MG, Egret D (eds) Proceedings of the conference held 12–15 October, 2003, Strasbourg, France; ASP Conference Proceedings, vol 314, San Francisco. Astronomical Society of the Pacific, p 137Google Scholar
  13. Herring TA (1992) Modelling atmospheric delays of space geodetic data. In: DeMunk JC, Spoelstra TA (eds) Symposium on refraction of transatmospheric signals in Geodesy. Netherlands Geodetic Comission Series No. 36, pp 157–164Google Scholar
  14. Høg E, Fabricius C, Makarov VV, Urban S, Corbin T, Wycoff G, Bastian U, Schwekendiek P, Wicenec A (2000) The Tycho-2 catalogue of the 2.5 million brightest stars. A&A 355:L27–L30ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Klioner S, Soffel M (2004) Refining the relativistic model for GAIA: cosmoligical effects in the BCRS. In: Proceedings of the GAIA meeting, 4–7 October 2004, Paris (ESA SP-576), 2004, pp 305–308Google Scholar
  16. Kovalevsky J (1995) Modern astrometry. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kovalevsky J, Lindegren L, Perryman MAC, Hemenway PD, Johnston KJ, Kislyuk VS, Lestrade JF, Morrison LV, Platais I, Röser S, Schilbach E, Tucholke HJ, de Vegt C, Vondrák J, Arias F, Gontier AM, Arenou F, Brosche P, Florkowski DR, Garrington ST, Preston RA, Ron C, Rybka SP, Scholtz RD, Zacharias N (1997) The Hipparcos catalogue as a realisation of the extragalactic reference system. A&A 323:620–633ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Kovalevsky J, Seidelmann PK (2004) Fundamentals of astrometry. Cambridge University Press, CambridgezbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurdubov S (2007) QUASAR software in IAA EOP service: Global solution and Daily SINEX. In: Böhm J, Pany A, Schuh H (eds) Proceedings of the 18th European VLBI for Geodesy and Astrometry working meeting. Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, Heft Nr. 79, pp 79–81Google Scholar
  20. McCarthy D, Petit G (2003) IERS Conventions 2003, IERS Technical Note No. 32, Verlag des Bundesamtes für Kartographie und Geodäsie, Frankfurt am Main, 2004Google Scholar
  21. McCarthy DD (1996) IERS Conventions (1996), IERS Technical Note No. 21, Paris, Central Bureau of IERS, Observatoire de Paris, 1996Google Scholar
  22. Monet DG, Levine SE, Canzian B, Ables HD, Bird AR, Dahn CC, Guetter HH, Harris HC, Henden AA, Leggett SK, Levison HF, Luginbuhl CB, Martini J, Monet AKB, Munn JA, Pier JR, Rhodes AR, Riepe B, Sell S, Stone RC, Vrba FJ, Walker RL, Westerhout G, Brucato RJ, Reid IN, Schoening W, Hartley M, Read MA, Tritton SB (2003) The USNO-B catalog. Astron J 125:984–993ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Niell AE (1996) Global mapping functions for the atmosphere delay at radio wavelength. J Geophys Res 100:3227–3246ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Niell AE (2000) Improved atmospheric mapping functions for VLBI and GPS’. Earth Planets Space 52:699–702ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Röser S, Demleitner M, Schilbach E (2010) The PPMXL catalog of positions and proper motions on the ICRS. Astron J 139:2440–2447ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Skrutskie MF, Cutri RM, Stiening R, Weinberg MD, Schneider S, Carpenter JM, Beichman C, Capps R, Chester T, Elias J, Huchra J, Liebert J, Lonsdale C, Monet DG, Price S, Seitzer P, Jarrett T, Kirkpatrick JD, Gizis JE, Howard E, Evans T, Fowler J, Fullmer L, Hurt R, Light R, Kopan EL, Marsh KA, McCallon HL, Tam R, Van Dyk S, Wheelock S (2006) The two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Astron J 131:1163ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Soffel M, Klioner S (2004) The BCRS ans the large scale structure of the universe. In: Finkelstein A, Capitaine N (eds) Proceedings of the Journées 2003 - Systèmes de Référence spatio-temporels, St.Petersburg, 2004, pp 297–301Google Scholar
  28. Soffel M, Klioner SA, Petit G, Wolf P, Kopeikin SM, Bretagnon P, Brumberg VA, Capitaine N, Damour T, Fukushima T, Guinot B, Huang T-Y, Lindegren L, Ma C, Nordtvedt K, Ries JC, Seidelmann PK, Vokrouhlický D, Will CM, Xu C (2003) The IAU 2000 resolutions for astrometry, celestial mechanics, and metrology in the relativistic framework: Explanatory supplement. Astron J 126:2687–2706ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spagna A, Lattanzi MG, McLean B, Bucciarelli B, Carollo D, Drimmel R, Greene G, Morbidelli R, Pannunzio R, Sarasso M, Smart R, Volpicelli A (2006) The guide star catalog, II. Properties of the GSC 2.3 release. Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 77:1166Google Scholar
  30. Titov O (2004) Construction of a Celestial Coordinate Reference Frame from VLBI Data. Astron Rep 48(11):941–948ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Titov O, Tesmer V, Böhm J (2004) OCCAM v. 6.0 software for VLBI data analysis. In: Vandenberg NV, Baver KD (eds) International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry, International Service for Geodesy and Astrometry, 2004 General Metting Proceedings, Ottawa, Canada, NASA/CP-2204-212255, pp 267–271Google Scholar
  32. Urban SE, Corbin TE, Wycoff GL, Makarov VV, Høg E, Fabricius C (2001) The AC2000.2 Catalogue, Washington DC: U.S. Naval Observatory. Copenhagen University Observatory, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  33. van Leeuwen F (2007) Hipparcos, the New Reduction of the Raw Data, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol 350, Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  34. Walter HG, Sovers OJ (2000) Astrometry of fundamental catalogues. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weinberg S (1972) Gravitation and cosmology: Principles and applications of the general theory of relativity. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Wielen R, Schwan H, Dettbarn C, Lenhardt H, Jahreiß H, Jährling R (1999) Sixth catalogue of fundamental Stars (FK6), Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Veröff. Astron. Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, no. 35Google Scholar
  37. Zacharias N, Urban SE, Zacharias MI, Hall DM, Wycoff GL, Rafferty TJ, Germain ME, Holdenried ER, Pohlman JW, Gauss FS, Monet DG, Winter L (2000) The First US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog. Astron J 120:2131–2147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zacharias N, Urban SE, Zacharias MI, Wycoff GL, Hall DM, Monet DG, Rafferty TJ (2004) The Second US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC2). Astron J 127: 3043–3059ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zacharias N, Finch C, Girard T, Hambly N, Wycoff G, Zacharias MI, Castillo D, Corbin T, DiVittorio M, Dutta S, Gaume R, Gauss S, Germain M, Hall D, Hartkopf W, Hsu D, Holdenried E, Makarov V, Martinez M, Mason B, Monet D, Rafferty T, Rhodes A, Siemers T, Smith D, Tilleman T, Urban S, Wieder G, Winter L, Young A (2010) The Third US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3). Astron J 139:2184–2199ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zacharias N et al (2012) UCAC4, in preparationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Soffel
    • 1
  • Ralf Langhans
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Planetary GeodesyDresden Technical University Lohrmann ObservatoryDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations