Runtime Verification of Traces under Recording Uncertainty

  • Shaohui Wang
  • Anaheed Ayoub
  • Oleg Sokolsky
  • Insup Lee
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7186)


We present an on-line algorithm for the runtime checking of temporal properties, expressed as past-time Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) over the traces of observations recorded by a “black box”-like device. The recorder captures the observed values but not the precise time of their occurrences, and precise truth evaluation of a temporal logic formula cannot always be obtained. In order to handle this uncertainty, the checking algorithm is based on a three-valued semantics for past-time LTL defined in this paper. In addition to the algorithm, the paper presents results of an evaluation that aimed to study the effects of the recording uncertainty on different kinds of temporal logic properties.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Barringer, H., Goldberg, A., Havelund, K., Sen, K.: Program monitoring with LTL in EAGLE. In: Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Comparing LTL Semantics for Runtime Verification. Journal of Logic and Computation (JLC) 20, 651–674 (2010)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Runtime verification for LTL and TLTL. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bodden, E.: J-LO—A tool for runtime-checking temporal assertions. Diploma thesis, RWTH Aachen University (November 2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bollig, B., Leucker, M.: Deciding LTL over Mazurkiewicz traces. Data & Knowledge Engineering 44(2), 219–238 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. MIT Press (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Genest, B., Kuske, D., Muscholl, A., Peled, D.A.: Snapshot Verification. In: Halbwachs, N., Zuck, L.D. (eds.) TACAS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3440, pp. 510–525. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Havelund, K., Roşu, G.: Monitoring programs using rewriting. In: International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Havelund, K., Roşu, G.: Synthesizing Monitors for Safety Properties. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 342–356. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Havelund, K., Roşu, G.: Efficient monitoring of safety properties. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 6(2), 158–173 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kleene, S.C.: Introduction to Metamathematics. D. Van Nostrand (1950)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee, I., Kannan, S., Kim, M., Sokolsky, O., Viswanathan, M.: Runtime assurance based on formal specifications. In: PDPTA 1999, pp. 279–287 (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manna, Z., Pnueli, A.: The temporal logic of reactive and concurrent systems: specification, vol. 1. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mazurkiewicz, A.: Concurrent program schemes and their interpretations. Tech. rep., DAIMI Rep. PB 78, Aarhus University (1977)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pnueli, A.: The temporal logic of programs. In: 18th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 46–57. IEEE (1977)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rozier, K., Vardi, M.: LTL Satisfiability Checking. In: Bošnački, D., Edelkamp, S. (eds.) SPIN 2007. LNCS, vol. 4595, pp. 149–167. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    SAnToS Lab, Kansas State University: Property pattern mappings for LTL,
  18. 18.
    Spees, W.S.: Functional Requirement for LDR Component. Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tauriainen, H., Heljanko, K.: Testing LTL formula translation into Büchi automata. STTT 4(1), 57–70 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaohui Wang
    • 1
  • Anaheed Ayoub
    • 1
  • Oleg Sokolsky
    • 1
  • Insup Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information ScienceUniversity of PennsylvaniaUSA

Personalised recommendations