Principles of Hybrid Brain–Computer Interfaces

  • Gernot R. Müller-PutzEmail author
  • Robert Leeb
  • José d. R. Millán
  • Petar Horki
  • Alex Kreilinger
  • Günther Bauernfeind
  • Brendan Z. Allison
  • Clemens Brunner
  • Reinhold Scherer
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) research has developed in the last decade so that BCIs are ready to be used with users outside the research labs. Although a wide range of assistive devices (ADs) exist, the additional usage of a BCI could improve the overall performance or applicability of such a combined system and is called hybrid BCI (hBCI). In this chapter the development of hBCIs starting from specific BCI combinations to very general hBCI based on EEG, biosignals and ADs is presented.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Spinal Muscular Atrophy Motor Imagery Muscular Fatigue Prosthetic Hand 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is partly supported by the European ICT programme projects TOBI: Tools for Brain–Computer Interaction (FP7-224631) and fBNCI: Future Directions for Brain/Neuronal Computer Interaction (FP7-248320). Also, parts were supported by the “Land Steiermark” (project A3-22.N-13/2009-8) and the NeuroCenterStyria. This paper only reflects the authors’ views and funding agencies are not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gernot R. Müller-Putz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Leeb
    • 2
  • José d. R. Millán
    • 2
  • Petar Horki
    • 1
  • Alex Kreilinger
    • 1
  • Günther Bauernfeind
    • 1
  • Brendan Z. Allison
    • 1
  • Clemens Brunner
    • 1
  • Reinhold Scherer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Knowledge Discovery, BCI-LabGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Chair in Non-Invasive Brain-Machine InterfaceÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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