Terahertz Near-Field Imaging

  • Paul C. M. Planken
  • Aurèle J. L. Adam
  • DaiSik Kim
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 171)

Abstract

The terahertz (THz) frequency range has proven to be a very interesting frequency range for imaging applications. The smallest spatial features that can theoretically be resolved is limited by diffraction to values of about half of a wavelength, which corresponds to 150 \(\upmu \)m for a frequency of 1 THz. To overcome this diffraction limit, THz near-field techniques have been developed. Some of these techniques are unique for the THz frequency range and others are derived from similar techniques used in, for example, the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. An interesting feature of many of these near-field techniques is that they measure the electric field rather than the intensity. This makes it also possible to study the near-electromagnetic field itself with a resolving power, as defined as the ratio of the spatial resolution to the wavelength, and bandwidth which are practically unobtainable in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This chapter describes a number of different techniques to overcome the diffraction limit in the THz frequency range and also the results that have been obtained with them.

Keywords

Wire Antenna Photoconductive Antenna Image Dipole Perfect Metal Sommerfeld Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Specht, J.D. Pedarnig, W.M. Heckl, T.W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, H.K. Wickramasinghe, Science 269, 1083 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, Opt. Commun. 182, 321 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, Nature 418, 159 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N.C.J. van der Valk, P.C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.C.M. Planken, C.E.W.M. van Rijmenam, R.N. Schouten, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, s121 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.A. Kütt, W. Albrecht, H. Kurz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2434 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Adam, L. Chusseau, T. Grosjean, A. Penarier, J.-P. Guillet, D. Charraut, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 073107 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, G.C. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G.C. Cho, H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, N. Karpowicz, R. Kersting, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S286 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, H.-T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 112115 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpura, R. Hillenbrand, Nano Lett. 8, 3766 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.J.L. Adam, N.C.J. van der Valk, P.C.M. Planken, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1080 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Wang, D.M. Mittleman, N.C.J. van der Valk, P.C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2715 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G.C. Cho, R. Kersting, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Kersting, H.-T. Chen, N. Karpowicz, G.C. Cho, J. Appl. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, s184 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Li, S. Popov, A.T. Friberg, S. Sergeyev, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 4, 09007 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Walther, G.S. Chambers, Z. Liu, M.R. Freeman, F.A. Hegmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2357 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York, 1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. van Bladel, Proc. IEEE 71, 901 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Cory, A.C. Boccara, J.C. Rivoal, A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Wang, D.M. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Wang, A. Barkan, D.M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 305 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Wang, D.M. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 157401 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Astley, R. Mendis, D.M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031104 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.A. Deibel, N. Berndsen, K. Wang, D.M. Mittleman, N.C.J. van der Valk, P.C.M. Planken, Opt. Express 14, 8772 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, Opt. Express 15, 9022 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.A. Deibel, K. Wang, M.D. Escarra, D.M. Mittleman, Opt. Express 14, 279 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051107 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J.A. Deibel, D.M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.A. Maier, S.R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, F.J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 176805 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, H. Su, Opt. Commun. 283, 262 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    F. Keilmann, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 217 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, M.C. Nuss, Opt. Commun. 150, 22 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    H.A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944)MathSciNetADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C.J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401 (1950)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M.C. Wanke, R.R. Ruel, J.D. Wynn, A.J. Bruce, J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J.D. Wynn, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J.W.P. Hsu, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, J.D. Wynn, J.F. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, J.D. Wynn, J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 252 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J.W.P. Hsu, R. Harel, J.F. Federici, J.D. Wynn, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 600 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    O. Mitrofanov, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1579 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    O. Mitrofanov et al., Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Proceedings, Springer series in Chemical Physics, 2003, p. 286Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.J.L. Adam, J.M. Brok, M.A. Seo, K.J. Ahn, D.S. Kim, J.H. Kang, Q.H. Park, M. Nagel, P.C.M. Planken, Opt. Express 16, 7407 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. Agrawal, H. Cao, A. Nahata, Opt. Express 13, 3535 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Cao, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, Opt. Express 13, 763 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    K. Ishihara, G. Hatakoshi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Ito, K. Ohashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1005 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. Ishihara, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, J. Shikata, K. Ohashi, H. Yokoyama, H. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L929 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, Nat. Photonics 2, 618 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Zhang, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061109 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M.M. Awad, R.A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221107 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    H. Zhan, R. Mendis, D.M. Mittleman, Opt. Express 18, 9643 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G.X. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 25, 1122 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Q. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 608 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    O. Mitrofanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091118 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H.G. Roskos, H. Kurz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. Yang, L.P.B. Katehi, J.F. Whitaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 486 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    N.C.J. van der Valk, W.A.M. van der Marel, P.C.M. Planken, Opt. Lett. 30, 2802 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Doi, F. Blanchard, H. Hirori, K. Tanaka, Opt. Express 18, 18419 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. Bitzer, M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, M. Walther, Opt. Express 17, 3826 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Wächter, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041112 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 161107 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    35th international conference on infrared, millimeter and terahertz waves, Rome, 2010Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. Maier, J.A. Sánchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, Opt. Express 18, 2797 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    K.G. Lee, H.W. Kihm, J.E. Kihm, W.J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D.J. Park, Y.C. Yoon, S.B. Choi, D.H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q.H. Park, C. Lienau, D.S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J.S. Ahn, H.W. Kihm, J.E. Kihm, D.S. Kim, K.G. Lee, Opt. Express 17, 2280 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    K.G. Lee, H.W. Kihm, K.J. Ahn, J.S. Ahn, Y.D. Suh, C. Lienau, D.S. Kim, Opt. Express 15, 14993 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    M.A. Seo, A.J.L. Adam, J.H. Kang, J.W. Lee, S.C. Jeoung, Q.H. Park, P.C.M. Planken, D.S. Kim, Opt. Express 15, 11781 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    K.J. Ahn, K.G. Lee, H.W. Kihm, M.A. Seo, A.J.L. Adam, P.C.M. Planken, D.S. Kim, New J. Phys. 10, 105003 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    M.A. Seo, H.R. Park, S.M. Koo, D.J. Park, J.H. Kang, O.K. Suwal, S.S. Choi, P.C.M. Planken, G.S. Park, N.K. Park, Q.H. Park, D.S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 3, 152 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M.A. Seo, A.J.L. Adam, J.H. Kang, J.W. Lee, K.J. Ahn, Q.H. Park, P.C.M. Planken, D.S. Kim, Opt. Express 16, 20484 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M.A. Seo, H.R. Park, D.J. Park, D.S. Kim, A.J.L. Adam, P.C.M. Planken, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 55, 267 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    J.R. Knab, A.J.L. Adam, M. Nagel, E. Shaner, M.A. Seo, D.S. Kim, P.C.M. Planken, Opt. Express 17, 15072 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    L. Guestin, A.J.L. Adam, J.R. Knab, M. Nagel, P.C.M. Planken, Opt. Express 17, 17412 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P.R. Mark, B. Bowden, J.A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    O. Mitrofanov, J.A. Harrington, Opt. Express 18, 1898 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J.R. Knab, A.J.L. Adam, R. Chakkittakandy, P.C.M. Planken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031115 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    A.J.L. Adam, J.M. Brok, P.C.M. Planken, M.A. Seo, D.S. Kim, C. R. Phys. 9, 161 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    K. Nielsen, H.K. Rasmussen, A.J.L. Adam, P.C.M. Planken, O. Bang, P.U. Jepsen, Opt. Express 17, 8592 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    W. Zhu, A. Nahata, Opt. Express 15, 5616 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. Bitzer, J. Wallauer, H. Helm, H. Merbold, T. Feurer, M. Walther, Opt. Express 17, 22108 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Bitzer, A. Ortner, M. Walther, Appl. Opt. 49, E1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Bitzer, A. Ortner, H. Merbold, T. Feurer, M. Walther, Opt. Express 19, 2537 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    M. Walther, B.M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397, 1009 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    V.A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D.P. Tsai, N.I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 223901 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. Nagel, A. Michalski, T. Botzem, H. Kurz, Opt. Express 19, 4667 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    F. Keilmann, A.J. Huber, R. Hillenbrand, J. Infrared Milli, Terahz. Waves 30, 1255 (2009)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, Opt. Lett. 33, 2767 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul C. M. Planken
    • 1
  • Aurèle J. L. Adam
    • 1
  • DaiSik Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversity of Technology DelftDelft The Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Subwavelength OpticsSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations