An ETX Based Positioning System for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

  • A. K. M. Mahtab Hossain
  • Preechai Mekbungwan
  • Kanchana Kanchanasut
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 73)


RF-based localization has gained popularity because it offers low-cost positioning solution for ad-hoc networks. The Received Signal Strength (RSS) measured by a node has traditionally been used as a parameter to estimate location. However, RSS is not made readily available in the ad-hoc routing protocols like some other link quality indication parameter, e.g., Expected Transmission Count (ETX). ETX predicts the number of transmissions required to deliver a packet over a particular link, including retransmissions. We reveal that ETX can be shown as a proximity indicator relative to an anchor node (i.e., node with known position), and thereby, could also be utilized as a location estimation parameter similar to RSS. We implement a localization plugin for the popular ad-hoc routing protocol, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) based on ETX. Our analysis and experiments show favorable results.


Localization Positioning System Ad-hoc Networks Expected Transmission Count (ETX) Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kurose, J.F., Ross, K.W.: Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(8), 102–114 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rappaport, T.S.: Wireless Communications – Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bulusu, N., Heidemann, J., Estrin, D.: GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine 7(5), 28–34 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    He, T., Huang, C., Blum, B.M., Stankovic, J.A., Abdelzaher, T.: Range-free localization schemes in large scale sensor networks. In: Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom 2003, pp. 81–95 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bardwell, J.: A discussion clarifying often-misused 802.11 WLAN terminologies,
  7. 7.
    Johnson, D.B.: Routing in ad hoc networks of mobile hosts. In: Proc. of the IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 158–163 (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perkins, C.E., Bhagwat, P.: Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (dsdv) for mobile computers. In: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conference (SIGCOMM 1994), pp. 234–244 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jacquet, P., Mühlethaler, P., Clausen, T., Laouiti, A., Qayyum, A., Viennot, L.: Optimized link state routing protocol for ad hoc networks. In: Proc. of IEEE INMIC, pp. 62–68 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M.: Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In: Proc. of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 90–100 (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Couto, D.S.J., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., Morris, R.: A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In: Proc of MobiCom 2003, New York, NY, USA, pp. 134–146 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Want, R., Hopper, A., Falcão, V., Gibbons, J.: The active badge location system. ACM Trans. on Information Systems 10(1), 91–102 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ward, A., Jones, A., Hopper, A.: A new location technique for the active office. IEEE Personal Communications 4(5), 42–47 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Priyantha, N., Chakraborty, A., Balakrishnan, H.: The Cricket location-support system. In: Proc. ACM MobiCom 2000, Boston, MA, pp. 32–43 (August 2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yedavalli, K., Krishnamachari, B., Ravula, S., Srinivasan, B.: Ecolocation: a sequence based technique for RF localization in wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. ISPN 2005 (April 2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hossain, M., Nguyen Van, H., Jin, Y., Soh, W.-S.: Indoor localization using multiple wireless technologies. In: Proc. IEEE MASS, Pisa, Italy (October 2007),
  17. 17.
    Nicolescu, D., Nath, B.: DV based positioning in ad hoc networks. Journal of Telecommunications Systems (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nagpal, R.: Organizing a global coordinate system from local information on an amorphous computer. MIT A.I. Laboratory, Tech. Rep. A.I. Memo 1666 (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu, H., Wang, C., Tzeng, N.-F.: Novel self-configurable positioning technique for multi-hop wireless networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 13(3), 609–621 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bahl, P., Padmanabhan, V.N.: RADAR: An in-building RF-based user location and tracking system. In: Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Tel Aviv, pp. 775–784 (2000)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Youssef, M.A., Agrawala, A., Shankar, A.U.: WLAN location determination via clustering and probability distributions. In: Proc. IEEE PERCOM 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jain, A.K., Duin, R., Mao, J.: Statistical pattern recognition: A review. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 22, 4–37 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    olsrd, An adhoc wireless mesh routing daemon,
  24. 24.
    Kaemarungsi, K., Krishnamurthy, P.: Properties of indoor received signal strength for WLAN location fingerprinting. In: Proc. MobiQuitous 2004, San Diego, CA, pp. 14–23 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Das, S.M., Pucha, H., Papagiannaki, K., Hu, Y.C.: Studying wireless routing link metric dynamics. In: Proc. of IMC 2007, NY, USA, pp. 327–332 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Priyantha, N.B., Balakrishnan, H., Demaine, E., Teller, S.: Anchor-free distributed localization in sensor networks. In: Proc. of SenSys 2003, pp. 340–341 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. M. Mahtab Hossain
    • 1
  • Preechai Mekbungwan
    • 1
  • Kanchana Kanchanasut
    • 1
  1. 1.Internet Education and Research Laboratory (intERLab)Asian Institute of TechnologyThailand

Personalised recommendations