Seahorses in Traditional Medicines: A Global Overview

  • Ierecê Lucena Rosa
  • Gabriela Rocha Defavari
  • Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves
  • Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro Oliveira
Chapter

Abstract

Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) are under threat worldwide because of the global demand for them and products arising from them, and by destruction of their habitats. A landmark report published in 1996 exposed the massive trade in seahorses, involving at least 32 countries, and established that the market for these fishes was threatening their wild populations. A subsequent set of surveys identified a much larger number of countries (nearly 80) involved in the seahorse trade, thus furthering concern over its sustainability. As a means of ensuring that trade is not detrimental to the survival of wild populations, all species of Hippocampus were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), effective May 2004. Given that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its derivatives account for the largest consumption of seahorses, further understanding of traditional medicinal uses of seahorses is central to conservation efforts, both on national and international levels. This chapter summarizes knowledge about the medicinal uses of seahorses, focusing on the species used, illnesses and ailments to which species are prescribed, and implications for conservation.

References

  1. Alakbarli F (2006) Medical manuscripts of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev Foundation, BakuGoogle Scholar
  2. Alino PM, Cajipe GJB, Ganzon-Fortes ET, Licuanan WRY, Montano NE, Tupas LM (1990) The use of marine organisms in folk medicine and horticulture: a preliminary study. Seaweed Information Center (SICEN), University of the Philippines, Quezon CityGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida CFCBR, Albuquerque UP (2002) Uso e conservação de plantas e animais medicinais no Estado de Pernambuco (Nordeste do Brasil): Um estudo de caso. Interciencia 27(6):276–285Google Scholar
  4. Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2006) From cnidarians to mammals: the use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in NE Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 107:259–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2007a) Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet? J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 3(14):9Google Scholar
  6. Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2007b) Zootherapeutic practices among fishing communities in North and Northeast Brazil: a comparison. J Ethnopharmacol 111:82–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2007c) Zootherapy goes to town: the use of animal-based remedies in urban areas of NE and N Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 113:541–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2010) Trade of animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine: trends and implications for conservation. Hum Ecol 38(5):691–740Google Scholar
  9. Alves RRN, Rosa IL, Santana GG (2007) The role of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in Brazil. Bioscience 57(11):949–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alves RRN, Lima HN, Tavares MC, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD, Vasconcellos A (2008a) Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil. BMC Complement Altern Med 8:44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alves RRN, Vieira WLS, Santana GG (2008b) Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodiversity Conserv 17(1):2037–2049Google Scholar
  12. Alves RRN, Neto NAL, Brooks SE, Albuquerque UP (2009) Commercialization of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 124(3):600–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alves RRN, Oliveira MGG, Barboza RRD, Lopez LCS (2010a) An ethnozoological survey of medicinal animals commercialized in the markets of Campina Grande, NE Brazil. Hum Ecol Rev 17(1):11–17Google Scholar
  14. Alves RRN, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD (2010b) Primates in traditional folk medicine: a world overview. Mamm Rev 40(2):155–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Andrade JN, Costa Neto EM (2006) O comércio de produtos zooterápicos na cidade de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil. Sitientibus Série Ciências Biológicas (Etnobiologia) 6:37–43Google Scholar
  16. Araújo AM (2004) Medicina rústica. Martins Fontes, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  17. Ashwell D, Walston N (2008) An overview of the use and trade of plants and animals in traditional medicine systems in Cambodia, 1st edn. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Greater Mekong Programme, Ha Noi, VietnamGoogle Scholar
  18. Barros S (1977) Arte, folclore, subdesenvolvimento. Civilização Brasileira, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  19. Baum JK, Vincent ACJ (2005) Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environ Conserv 32(04):305–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baum JK, Vincent ACJ (2011a) Seahorse trade in Central America. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998–2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 78–101Google Scholar
  21. Baum JK, Vincent ACJ (2011b) Seahorse trade in Mexico. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998–2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 57–77Google Scholar
  22. Baum JK, Rosa IL, Vincent ACJ (2011) Seahorse trade in South America. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998–2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 102–128Google Scholar
  23. Begossi A (1992) Food taboos at Búzios Island (SE Brazil): their significance and relation to folk medicine. J Ethnobiol 12(1):117–139Google Scholar
  24. Begossi A, Braga F (1992) Food taboos and folk medicine among fishermen from the Tocantins river. Amazoniana 12:341–352Google Scholar
  25. Begossi A, Figueiredo JL (1995) Ethnoichthyology of southern coastal fishermen: cases from Búzios Island and Sepetiba Bay (Brazil). Bull Mar Sci 56(2):710–717Google Scholar
  26. Bennet G (1834) Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, Singapore, and China: being the journal of a naturalist in those countries during 1832, 1833, and 1834. Richard Bentley, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bensky D, Clavey S, Stöger E (2004) Chinese herbal medicine: materia medica. Eastland Press, SeatleGoogle Scholar
  28. Bisset NG (1991) One man’s poison, another man’s medicine? J Ethnopharmacol 32(1–3):71–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bonifácio KM (2002) Estudo etnoictiológico e de comércio de cavalos-marinhos (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) por pescadores artesanais do Estuário do Rio Mamanguape—PB. BSc monograph, Universidade Federal da ParaíbaGoogle Scholar
  30. Bostock J, Riley HT (1855) The natural history. Pliny the Elder, Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Brautigam AJ, Howes T, Hutton H, Hutton J (1994) Analysis of the market for tigers, bears and musk deer in the Russian Far East. Traffic Bull 15(1):23–30Google Scholar
  32. Bruckner AW (2002) Life-saving products from coral reefs. Issue Sci Technol 18(3):39–44Google Scholar
  33. Bruckner AW, Field JD, Daves NK (2005) The proceedings of the international workshop on CITES implementation for seahorse conservation and trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-36, Silver SpringGoogle Scholar
  34. But PP, Tam YK, Lung LC (1991) Ethnopharmacology of rhinoceros horn. II: Antipyretic effects of prescriptions containing rhinoceros horn or water buffalo horn. J Ethnopharmacol 33(1–2):45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Call E (2006) Mending the web of life—Chinese medicine & species conservation. IFAW/AHPA-ERB Foundation, Yarmouth Port/Silver SpringGoogle Scholar
  36. Camargo MTLA (1985) Medicina popular: aspectos metodológicos para pesquisa: garrafada, objeto de pesquisa: componentes medicinais de origem vegetal, animal e mineral. Almed, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  37. Cameron G, Pendry S, Allan C, Wu J (2004) Traditional Asian medicine identification guide for law enforcers: version II. Her Majesty’s Customs and Excise, London, and TRAFFIC International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Chivian E (2002) Biodiversity: its importance to human health. Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, BostonGoogle Scholar
  39. Christie P, Oracio EG, Eisma-Osorio L (2011) Impacts of the CITES listing of seahorses on the status of the species and on human well-being in the Philippines: a case study. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular, vol 1058. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen TM, Yan M (2009) A tradition of soup: flavors from China’s Pearl River Delta. North Atlantic Books, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  41. CITES (2002) CoP12 Prop. 12.37—consideration of proposals for amendment of Appendices I and II. Inclusion of all species of the genus Hippocampus (Hippocampus spp.) in Appendix II of CITESGoogle Scholar
  42. Clarke S (2002) Trade in Asian dried seafood: characterization, estimation and implications for conservation. Wildl Conserv Soc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Costa-Neto EM (1999a) Barata é um santo remédio: introdução a zooterapia popular no Estado da Bahia. Editora Universitária da UEFS, Feira de SantanaGoogle Scholar
  44. Costa-Neto EM (1999b) Healing with animals in Feira de Santana City, Bahia, Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 65:225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Costa-Neto EM (1999c) Traditional use and sale of animals as medicines in Feira de Santana City, Bahia, Brazil. Indig Knowl Dev Monit 7(2):6–9Google Scholar
  46. Costa-Neto EM (2000) Zootherapy based medicinal traditions in Brazil. Honey Bee 11(2):2–4Google Scholar
  47. Costa-Neto EM (2001) A cultura pesqueira do litoral Norte da Bahia. Salvador/Macéio, EDUFBA/EDUFAL, Salvador/Macéio, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  48. Costa-Neto EM (2002) The use of insects in folk medicine in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, With notes on insects reported elsewhere in Brazilian folk medicine. Hum Ecol 30(2):245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Costa-Neto EM (2004) Implications and applications of folk zootherapy in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Sustain Dev 12(3):161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Costa-Neto EM, Marques JGW (2000) Conhecimento ictiológico tradicional e a distribuição temporal e espacial de recursos pesqueiros pelos pescadores de Conde, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Etnoecológica 4(6):56–68Google Scholar
  51. Costa-Neto EM, Mota PC (2010) Animal species traded as ethnomedicinal resources in the Federal District, central west region of Brazil. Open Complementary Med J 2:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Demunshi Y, Chugh A (2010) Role of traditional knowledge in marine bioprospecting. Biodivers Conserv 19:3015–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dharmananda S (2002) Treatment of diabetes with Chinese herbs and acupuncture. http://www.itmonline.org/journal/arts/diabetes.htm. Accessed 28 Aug 2011
  54. Dias TL, Rosa IL, Baum JK (2002) Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Syngnathidae). Environ Biol Fishes 65(3):326–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eastman CR (1915) Olden time knowledge of Hippocampus. Ann Rep Board Regents Smithson Inst 1915:349–357Google Scholar
  56. El-Deir ACA, Collier CA, Neto MSA, Silva KMS, Policarpo IS, Araújo TAS, Alves RRN, Albuquerque UP, Moura GJB (2012) Ichthyofauna used in traditional medicine in Brazil. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (in press)Google Scholar
  57. El-Kamali HH (2000) Folk medicinal use of some animal products in Central Sudan. J Ethnopharmacol 72:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ellis R (2005) Tiger bone & rhino horn: the destruction of wildlife for traditional Chinese medicine. Island Press, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  59. Ewbank T (1856) Life in Brazil; or a journal of a visit to the land of the cocoa and the palm. Harper & Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Fan Z (2005) National report—China. In: Bruckner AW, Field JD, Daves NK (eds) The proceedings of the international workshop on CITES implementation for seahorse conservation and trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-35, vol 1. Silver Spring, pp 54–61Google Scholar
  61. Ferreira FS, Albuquerque UP, Coutinho HDM (2012) The trade in medicinal animals in Northeastern Brazil. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. doi: 10.1155/2012/126938
  62. Ferreira FS, Brito S, Ribeiro S, Saraiva A, Almeida W, Alves RRN (2009) Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara, Brazil. BMC Complement Altern Med 9(1):17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fontenelle LFR (1959) Aimorés: análise antropológica de um programa de saúde. Dasp/Serviço de Documentação, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  64. Foster SJ, Vincent ACJ (2004) Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. J Fish Biol 65(1):1–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fulder S (1993) The book of ginseng: and other Chinese herbs for vitality. Healing Arts Press, RochesterGoogle Scholar
  66. Gaski AL, Johnson KA (1994) Prescription for extinction: endangered species and patented Oriental medicines in trade. TRAFFIC USA and TRAFFIC International, Whasington D.C./CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. Giles BG, Ky TS, Hoang H, Vincent ACJ (2006) The catch and trade of seahorses in Vietnam. Hum Exploitation Biodiversity Conserv:157–173Google Scholar
  68. Goenka D (2005) National report—India. In: Bruckner AW, Field JD, Daves NK (eds) The proceedings of the international workshop on CITES implementation for seahorse conservation and trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-35, vol 1. Siler Spring, pp 62–68Google Scholar
  69. Gray AC (2005) Experience of medicine 2—clinical manuals in Homeopathic medicine, vol Two. Alastair Gray, SidneyGoogle Scholar
  70. Gunther RT (1959) The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Hirschhorn HH (1982) Natural substances in currently available Chinese herbal and patent medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 6(1):109–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ho CCK, Tan HM (2011) Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management. Curr Urol Rep:1–9Google Scholar
  73. Hopkins J (2006) Asian aphrodisiacs. Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd., SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoover C (2003) Response to ‘Sex, drugs and animal parts: will Viagra save threatened species?’. Environ Conserv 30(04):317–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Huxtable RJ (1992) The pharmacology of extinction. J Ethnopharmacol 37(1):1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. IUCN (2011) Red list of threatened species. Version 2011.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 26 Oct 2011
  77. Jacobs F (1832) Aeliani de natura animalium: libri XVII. Impensis Friderici Frommanni, JenaGoogle Scholar
  78. James R (1747) Pharmacopoeia universalis: or, A new universal English dispensatory. J. Hodges and J. Wood, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Kang S, Phipps M (2003) A question of attitude: South Korea’s traditional medicine practitioners and wildlife conservation, 1st edn. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  80. Koldewey HJ, Martin-Smith KM (2010) A global review of seahorse aquaculture. Aquaculture 302(3–4):131–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lages-Filho J (1934) A Medicina popular em Alagoas. Liv. Scientifica, SalvadorGoogle Scholar
  82. LaFrance P, Vincent ACJ (2011) Seahorse trade in the USA and Canada. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998–2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 39–56Google Scholar
  83. Lee SKH (1999) Trade in traditional medicine using endangered species: an international context. In: Proceedings of the second Australian symposium on traditional medicine and wildlife conservation, Melbourne, 1999. Environment Australia, Canberra, pp 15–19Google Scholar
  84. Lee J (2000a) TCM use of marine medicinals: content and context. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal pp 81–83Google Scholar
  85. Lee Y-J (2000b) The state of seahorses as herbs in Korean oriental medicine. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal pp 92–94Google Scholar
  86. Lee SK, Mills J (2000) How conservationists can work with traditional medicine communities. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal pp 87–89Google Scholar
  87. Lee S, Hoover C, Gaski A, Mills J (1998) A world apart? Attitudes toward traditional Chinese medicine and endangered species in Hong Kong and the United States. TRAFFIC East Asia, TRAFFIC North America, and World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  88. Lei L, Yangbo Y, Shuyun L, Hongjun L (1996) Preparations and uses of Chinese medicated spirits and wine. Shandong Friendship Press, JinanGoogle Scholar
  89. Lev E (2003) Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day levantine practice. J Ethnopharmacol 85(1):107–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lipton AP (2000) Fishery for marine medicinal species in India: problems and responses. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal pp 75–77Google Scholar
  91. Liu C, Tseng A, Yang S (2005) Chinese herbal medicine: modern applications of traditional formulas. Alternative medicine, CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  92. Lockyear J (2000) South African seahorses: consumption, threats and research problems In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Management and Culture of Marine Species Used in Traditional Medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal pp 99-101Google Scholar
  93. Lourie SA, Vincent ACJ, Hall HJ (1999) Seahorses: an identification guide to the world’s species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Lourie SA, Vincent ACJ, Hall HJ (2004) A guide to the identification of seahorses. project seahorse and TRAFFIC North America. University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  95. Low WY, Tan HM (2007) Asian traditional medicine for erectile dysfunction. J Men’s Health Gend 4(3):245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mainka SA, Mills JA (1995) Wildlife and traditional Chinese medicine: supply and demand for wildlife species. J Zoo Wildl Med:193–200Google Scholar
  97. Marichamy R, Lipton AP, Ganapathy A, Ramalingam JR (1993) Large scale exploitation of sea horse (Hippocampus kuda) along the palk bay coast of Tamil Nadu. Marine Fish Inform Serv Tech Ext Ser 119:17–20Google Scholar
  98. Marques JGW (1997) Fauna medicinal: recurso do ambiente ou ameaça à biodiversidade? Mutum 1(4):4Google Scholar
  99. Marshall NT (1998) Searching for a cure: conservation of medicinal wildlife resources in East and Southern Africa. TRAFFIC International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  100. Martin-Smith KM, Vincent ACJ (2006) Exploitation and trade of Australian seahorses, pipehorses, sea dragons and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae). Oryx 40(02):141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Martin-Smith KM, Vincent ACJ (2011a) Syngnathid trade in Australia. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998–2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 138–165Google Scholar
  102. Martin-Smith KM, Vincent ACJ (2011b) Syngnathid trade in New Zealand. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998–2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 166–175Google Scholar
  103. May B, Tomoda T (2002) Seahorses in the Ben cao gang mu and in contemporary Chinese medicine. J Australian Chinese Med Education Res Council 7(1):2–13Google Scholar
  104. McPherson JM, Vincent ACJ (2004) Assessing East African trade in seahorse species as a basis for conservation under international controls. Aquatic Conserv Marine Freshw Ecosyst 14(5):521–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McPherson JM, Vincent ACJ (2011) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in Africa. In: Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SJ (eds) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998−2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp 7–38 Google Scholar
  106. Meenakarn S, Leepayakoon P (2005) National report—Thailand. In: Bruckner AW, Field JD, Daves NK (eds) The proceedings of the international workshop on CITES implementation for seahorse conservation and trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-35, vol 1. Silver Spring, pp 89–92Google Scholar
  107. Mills J, Servheen C (1994) The Asian trade in bears and bear parts: impacts and conservation recommendations. Bears: Their Biology and Management, pp 161–167Google Scholar
  108. Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (2000) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines. Project Seahorse, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  109. Morgan SK, Panes HM (2008) Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 (Syngnathidae). Environ Biol Fishes 82(1):21–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nogueira AJ, Vargas A, Brayner F, Campos M (2005) Medicina popular. Prefeitura Municipal, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  111. Oliveira ES, Torres DF, Brooks SE, Alves RRN (2010) The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, Northeastern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 130(1):54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Osório FM (2005) Análise do comércio de cavalos-marinhos no Ceará. Universidade Federal do Ceará, BSc monographGoogle Scholar
  113. Pajaro MG (2000) The importance of trade in marine medicinals to local communities In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal, pp 68–71Google Scholar
  114. Pajaro MG, Vincent ACJ, Buhat DY, Perante NC (1997) The role of seahorse fishers in conservation and management. In: Lunn KE, Boehm JR, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international symposium in marine conservation, 1997. Hong Kong Marine Conservation Society, Hong Kong, pp 118–126Google Scholar
  115. Perry A (2000) Global survey of marine medicinals. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines. Project Seahorse, Montreal, pp 35–43Google Scholar
  116. Perry AL, Lunn KE, Vincent ACJ (2010) Fisheries, large-scale trade, and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand. Aquatic Conserv Marine Freshw Ecosyst 20(4):464–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Parry-Jones R, Vincent A (1998) Can we tame wild medicine? New Scientist 157(2115):26–29Google Scholar
  118. Pitrè G (1896) Medicina popolare siciliana. Carlo Clausen, Torino-PalermoGoogle Scholar
  119. Project Seahorse (2002a) Hippocampus barbouri. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  120. Project Seahorse (2002b) Hippocampus comes. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  121. Project Seahorse (2002c) Hippocampus histrix. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  122. Project Seahorse (2002d) Hippocampus kelloggi. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  123. Project Seahorse (2003a) Hippocampus borboniensis. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  124. Project Seahorse (2003b) Hippocampus camelopardalis. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  125. Project Seahorse (2003c) Hippocampus erectus. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  126. Project Seahorse (2003d) Hippocampus fuscus. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  127. Project Seahorse (2003e) Hippocampus ingens. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  128. Project Seahorse (2003f) Hippocampus kuda. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  129. Project Seahorse (2003g) Hippocampus reidi. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  130. Project Seahorse (2003h) Hippocampus spinosissimus. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  131. Project Seahorse (2003i) Hippocampus trimaculatus. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  132. Project Seahorse (2011) Why seahorses? Essential facts about seahorses. http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/why-seahorses/essential-facts. Accessed 28 Oct 2011
  133. Qian ZJ, Ryu BM, Kim MM, Kim SK (2008) Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 13(6):705–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Quijano SB (2000) Role of women in the production, trade and use of marine species as medicine. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal, pp 72–74Google Scholar
  135. Rasteiro A (2003) Religião, medicação e informação/desinformação na época de Amato Lusitano. In: Sallvado A (ed) Medicina na Beira do Interior da Pré-História ao Século XXI. Cadernos de Cultura, n.17– Século XVI. Quarteto Editora, CoimbraGoogle Scholar
  136. Rocha LA (1960) História da Medicina em Pernambuco: Séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII. Arquivo Público Estadual, RecifeGoogle Scholar
  137. Robinson MM, Zhang X (2011) Traditional medicines: global situation, issues and challenges. World health organization. http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/policy/world_medicines_situation/WMS_ch18_wTraditionalMed.pdf
  138. Rosa IL (2005) National report—Brazil. In: Bruckner AW, Field JD, Daves NK (eds) The proceedings of the international workshop on CITES implementation for seahorse conservation and trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-35, vol 1. Silver Spring, pp 46–53Google Scholar
  139. Rosa IML, Alves R, Bonifácio KM, Mourão JS, Osório FM, Oliveira TPR, Nottingham MC (2005) Fishers’ knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 1(1):12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rosa IL, Oliveira TPR, Alves RRN (2010) Entre o corpo e o espírito: uso medicinal de cavalos-marinhos no Brasil. In: Alves RRN, Souto WMS, Mourão JS (eds) A Etnozoologia no Brasil: importância, status atual e perspectivas. NUPEEA, Recife, pp 323–346Google Scholar
  141. Rosa IL, Oliveira TPR, Osório FM, Moraes LE, Castro ALC, Barros GML, Alves RRN (2011) Fisheries and trade of seahorses in Brazil: historical perspective, current trends, and future directions. Biodivers Conserv 20(9):1951–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Salin KR, Mohanakumaran NC (2006) Resources and biodiversity of seahorses and the need for their conservation in India. Aquac Asia 11(3):3Google Scholar
  143. Sanders JG, Cribbs JE, Fienberg HG, Hulburd GC, Katz LS, Palumbi SR (2008) The tip of the tail: molecular identification of seahorses for sale in apothecary shops and curio stores in California. Conserv Genet 9(1):65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Scales H (2009) Poseidon’s steed: the story of seahorses, from myth to reality. Gotham, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  145. Scarborough J (1996) Drugs and medicines in the Roman world. Expedition Philadelphia 38:38–51Google Scholar
  146. Seixas C, Begossi A (2001) Ethnozoology of caiçaras from Aventureiro, Ilha Grande. J Ethnobiol 21(1):107–135Google Scholar
  147. Servheen C (1999) The trade in bears and bear parts. In: Servheen C, Herrero S, Peyton B (eds) Bears: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN, Gland/Cambridge, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  148. Sharlip ID (1981) Penile revascularization in the treatment of impotence. West J Med 134(3):206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Shukla C (2008) The quintessence of homeopathic remedies—provings & cases of Hawthorn, Mango, Oxygen, Sea Horse, Python & Crow. Homeolinks Publishers, HarenGoogle Scholar
  150. Silva MLV, Alves ÂGC, Almeida AV (2004) A zooterapia no Recife (Pernambuco): uma articulação entre as práticas e a história. Biotemas 17(1):95–116Google Scholar
  151. Sodeinde OA, Soewu DA (1999) Pilot study of the traditional medicine trade in Nigeria. Traffic Bulletin 18(1):35–40Google Scholar
  152. Solavan A, Paulmurugan R, Wilsanand V, Ranjith Sing AJA (2004) Traditional therapeutic uses of animals among tribal population of Tamil Nadu. Indian J Tradit Knowl 3(2):206–207Google Scholar
  153. Sonz S, Stewart R, Kushner S (2003) Hippocampus kuda, a proving of seahorse. Am Homeopath 9:100–123Google Scholar
  154. Sreepada RA, Desai UM, Naik S (2002) The plight of Indian sea horses: need for conservation and management. Curr Sci 82(4):377–378Google Scholar
  155. Tan BKH, Ong VYC, Lim PHC (2010) Clinical applications of modern and traditional pharmacopoeias for sexual health in Singapore and Asia. In: Park NC, Okuyama A, Xin Z-C, Park JH, Earle C, Adaikan PG (eds) Modern oriental phytotherapy in sexual medicine. Koonja Publishing Inc., SeoulGoogle Scholar
  156. Trowell S (2003) Drugs from Bugs: The promise of pharmaceutical entomology. Futurist 37(1):17–19Google Scholar
  157. Urban S (1753) The Gentleman’s magazine and historical chronicle, vol 23. Edward Cave, LondonGoogle Scholar
  158. Van NDN, Tap N (2008) An overview of the use of plants and animals in traditional medicine systems in Viet Nam, 1st edn. Greater Mekong Programme, Ha Noi, Viet Nam, TRAFFIC Southeast AsiaGoogle Scholar
  159. Vasconcelos JL (1985) Etnografia portuguesa, vol IX. Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  160. Vincent ACJ (1995a) Seahorse conservation and traditional Chinese medicine. Abstr Chin Med 6(2):272–281Google Scholar
  161. Vincent ACJ (1995b) Trade in seahorses for traditional Chinese medicines, aquarium fishes and curios. Traffic Bulletin 15(3):125–128Google Scholar
  162. Vincent ACJ (1995c) Exploitation of seahorses and pipefishes. Naga Iclarm Quartely 18(1):18–19Google Scholar
  163. Vincent ACJ (1996) The international trade in seahorses. TRAFFIC International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  164. Vincent ACJ (1997) Sustainability of seahorse fishing. In: Lessios HA, Macintyre IG (eds) Eighth international coral reef symposium, Panama, 1997. Proceedings of the eighth international coral reef symposium. smithsonian tropical research institute, pp 2045–2050Google Scholar
  165. Vincent ACJ (2000) Setting the scene for marine medicinal species. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal, pp 61–65Google Scholar
  166. Vincent ACJ (2006) Live food and non-food fisheries on coral reefs, and their potential management. In: Côté IM, Reynolds JD (eds) Coral Reef Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 183–236Google Scholar
  167. Vincent ACJ, Marsden AD, Sumaila UR (2007a) Possible contributions of globalization in creating and addressing sea horse conservation problems. In: Taylor WW, Schechter MG, Wolfson LG (eds) Globalization: Effects on Fisheries Resources. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 185–214Google Scholar
  168. Vincent ACJ, Meeuwig JJ, Pajaro MG, Perante NC (2007b) Characterizing a small-scale, data-poor, artisanal fishery: seahorses in the central Philippines. Fish Res 86(2–3):207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Vincent ACJ, Foster SJ, Koldewey HJ (2011a) Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. J Fish Biol 78(6):1681–1724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor CA, Foster SF (2011b) Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  171. Wemmer C (1998) Deer: status survey and conservation action plan, vol 43. IUCN, Gland/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  172. Wong K, Dahlen M (1999) Streetwise guide: Chinese herbal medicine. Red Mansions, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  173. Woods CMC, Morgan SK, Martin-Smith K, Pogonoski JJ, Paxton JR, Pollard DA, Morgan AJ (2006) Hippocampus abdominalis. In: 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Accessed 28 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  174. Wu S, Liu NF, Zhang YM, Ma GZ (2004) Assessment of threatened status of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). Chin J Appl Environ Biol 10(4):456–461Google Scholar
  175. Xie H, Preast V (2010) Xie’s Chinese veterinary herbology. Wiley-Blackwell, AmesGoogle Scholar
  176. Yao DM, Chang CP (1995) A colored atlas of the Chinese materia medica specified in pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, GuangdongGoogle Scholar
  177. Zhang E (2000) Preliminary report on seahorse trade in Shanghai and Tianjin. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal, pp 84–86Google Scholar
  178. Zheng H (2000) Marine species in traditional Chinese medicines. In: Moreau M-A, Hall HJ, Vincent ACJ (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on the management and culture of marine species used in traditional medicines, Cebu City, 1998. Project Seahorse, Montreal, pp 90–91Google Scholar
  179. Zhu CH (1989) Clinical handbook of Chinese prepared medicines, Paradigm Title Series. Paradigm Publications, BrooklineGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ierecê Lucena Rosa
    • 1
  • Gabriela Rocha Defavari
    • 1
  • Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves
    • 2
  • Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro Oliveira
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Sistemática e EcologiaUniversidade Federal da ParaíbaJoão Pessoa-PBBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Biologia, Ethnozoology, Conservation and Biodiversity Research GroupUniversidade Estadual da ParaíbaCampina Grande-PBBrazil

Personalised recommendations