Origin of Thermal Waters in Budapest Based on Chemical and Isotope Investigations Including Chlorine-36

  • Werner BaldererEmail author
  • H. Arno Synal
  • J. Deák
  • I. Fórizs
  • Fanny Leuenberger
Part of the Environmental Earth Sciences book series (EESCI)


Budapest is a major spa center with numerous thermal baths that are open to the public. Thermal spas in Budapest were first developed by the Romans and followed by the Turks, present spas were built mainly in the 19th and 20th centuries. At the city of Budapest the Danube River flows along a geological fault which separates the Buda Hills from the Great Plain. Within this fault zone in the vicinity of the Danube more than 100 thermal springs are arising yielding totally about 40,000 m3 per day of warm mineral water. In this study the results of thermal, chemical and isotope analyses (including tritium and chlorine-36) of 12 thermal springs and wells are presented. These results are interpreted with respect to the origin and recharge conditions of the investigated thermal waters.


Thermal waters Hydrogeological processes Isotopes Budapest 



This research was partly financed by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in the framework of the OTKA 60921 project (2007–2010).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Balderer
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Arno Synal
    • 2
  • J. Deák
    • 3
  • I. Fórizs
    • 4
  • Fanny Leuenberger
    • 5
  1. 1.Swiss Geotechnical CommissionETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Particle PhysicsETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.GWIS LtdDunakesziHungary
  4. 4.Hungarian Academy of SciencesInstitute for Geochemical ResearchBudapestHungary
  5. 5.Geological Institute, Engineering GeologyETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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