Immunosuppresssion and Immune Escape in Liver Cancer
Liver is regarded as a tolerogenic organ, and long-term persistence of hepatitis B and C viruses in the liver has been suggested to be partially due to the liver immunosuppressive or tolerogenic microenvironment. It is well known that hepatitis B and C viruses are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the later stages, and HCC cells develop many strategies to evade immunosurveillance or immunological attack. In this chapter we will summarize the recent advances in the identification and functional study of suppressive immune cells in liver microenvironment and investigate how they contribute to the HCC immunosuppressive microenvironment. Then we will introduce the development of effective approaches to induce immune responses to HCC.
KeywordsNatural Killer Cell Liver Cancer Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Treg Cell Immune Escape
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