In 2010 the Bank of Italy, the Department of Economics of Ca Foscari University of Venice, the Venice International University and the Manlio Masi Foundation sponsored a workshop on the Chinese economy, which was held in Venice in November of that year. The workshop gathered Italian and international scholars and experts from universities and institutions interested in issues related to the Chinese economy. The aim was to comprehend better its recent developments and prospects, and its impact on the rest of the world. From the analysis, suggestions emerge on how to improve statistical tools to measure performance and to obtain more precise macroeconomic forecasts. Moreover, it confirms the suspicion that a governance model of firms that does not sufficiently encourage market competition may have significant costs in terms of efficiency for the Chinese production system. The study of demographic factors and of household savings gives further support to calls for a serious reform effort, particularly of the pension and health care systems, to utilize households savings more efficiently and equitably. Finally the investigation of Chinese and global trade underscores the need for a less superficial consideration of the implications of the Chinese presence in global markets.