Abstract

The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the complexity, work on battery scheduling in literature is limited to either small batteries or to very simple loads. In this paper, we present an approach using the Kinetic Battery Model that combines real size batteries with realistic random loads. The results show that, indeed, battery scheduling results in lifetime improvements compared to the sequential useage of the batteries. The improvements mainly depend on the ratio between the average discharge current and the battery capacity. Our results show that for realistic loads one can achieve up to 20% improvements in system lifetime by applying battery scheduling.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Benini, L., Castelli, G., Macii, A., Macii, E., Poncino, M., Scarsi, R.: Extending lifetime of portable systems by battery scheduling. In: Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), pp. 197–203. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chiasserini, C., Rao, R.: Energy efficient battery management. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 19(7), 1235–1245 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cloth, L., Haverkort, B.R., Jongerden, M.R.: Computing battery lifetime distributions. In: Proc. IEEE DSN 2007, pp. 780–789. IEEE Computer Society Press (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jongerden, M., Haverkort, B., Bohnenkamp, H., Katoen, J.P.: Maximizing system lifetime by battery scheduling. In: Proc. IEEE DSN 2009, pp. 63–72. IEEE Computer Society Press (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jongerden, M., Mereacre, A., Bohnenkamp, H., Haverkort, B., Katoen, J.P.: Computing optimal schedules for battery usage in embedded systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 6(3), 276–286 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jongerden, M.R., Haverkort, B.R.: Which battery model to use? IET Software 3(6), 445–457 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jongerden, M., Haverkort, B.: Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling. In: UK Performance Engineering Workshop, Bradford, UK, July 7-8 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Manwell, J., McGowan, J.: Lead acid battery storage model for hybrid energy systems. Solar Energy 50, 399–405 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manwell, J., McGowan, J.: Extension of the kinetic battery model for wind/hybrid power systems. In: Proc. of the 5th European Wind Energy Association Conference (EWEC 1994), pp. 284–289 (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Baring-Gould, E., Stein, W., Leotta, A.: Evaluation of battery models for wind/hybrid power system simulation. In: Proc. of the 5th European Wind Energy Association Conference (EWEC 1994), pp. 1182–1187 (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsuura, Y.: Low-power consumption reference pulse generator. United States Patent 4,618,837 (1986)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Battery University.com (April 2010), http://www.batteryuniversity.com/partone-24.htm
  13. 13.
    Low Cost Batteries.com (April 2010), http://www.lowcostbatteries.com/articles.asp?id=107
  14. 14.
    Wolfram Mathworld Lambert-W Function (April 2010), http://mathworld.wolfram.com/lambertw-function.html
  15. 15.
    Rakhmatov, D., Vrudhula, S., Wallach, D.A.: Battery lifetime predictions for energy-aware computing. In: Proc. of the 2002 International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED 2002), pp. 154–159 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rakhmatov, D., Vrudhula, S., Wallach, D.A.: A model for battery lifetime analysis for organizing applications on a pocket computer. IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems 11(6), 1019–1030 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sarkar, S., Adamou, M.: A framework for optimal battery management for wireless nodes. In: Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002, pp. 179–188 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marijn R. Jongerden
    • 1
  • Boudewijn R. Haverkort
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Telematics and Information Technology, Design and Analysis of Communication Systems (DACS)University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Embedded Systems InstituteEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations