Embedded real-time systems are growing in complexity, which goes far beyond simplistic closed-loop functionality. Current approaches for worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis are used to verify the deadlines of such systems. These approaches calculate or measure the WCET as a single value that is expected as an upper bound for a system’s execution time. Overestimations are taken into account to make this upper bound a safe bound, but modern processor architectures expand those overestimations into unrealistic areas. Therefore, we present in this paper how of safety analysis model probabilities can be combined with elements of system development models to calculate a probabilistic WCET. This approach can be applied to systems that use mechanisms belonging to the area of fault tolerance, since such mechanisms are usually quantified using safety analyses to certify the system as being highly reliable or safe. A tool prototype implementing this approach is also presented which provides reliable safe upper bounds by performing a static WCET analysis and which overcomes the frequently encountered problem of dependence structures by using a fault injection approach.


fault tolerance software safety static analysis tool WCET fault tree 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Höfig
    • 1
  1. 1.AG Software Engineering: DependabilityUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany

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