Advertisement

Abstract

Chlorine is the second element of the halogen group (group 17 of the periodic table) and is positioned between sulphur and argon in period 3 of this table. Its nucleus consists of 17 protons. It has two stable isotopes as discovered by Aston (Nature 104:393, 1919), 35Cl with 18 neutrons and 37Cl with 20 neutrons. According to the latest report from the IUPAC (Berglund and Wieser in Pure Appl Chem 83:397–410, 2011) 35Cl is the most common stable isotope with an abundance of 75.76 % of the chlorine, while 37Cl consists of the remaining 24.24 %.

References

  1. Ader M, Coleman ML, Doyle SP, Stroud M, Wakelin D (2001) Methods for the stable isotopic analysis of chlorine in chlorate and perchlorate compounds. Anal Chem 73:4946–4950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ader M, Chaudhuri S, Coates JD, Coleman M (2008) Microbial perchlorate reduction: a precise laboratory determination of the chlorine isotope fractionation and its possible biochemical basis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269:604–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aston FW (1919) The constitution of the elements. Nature 104:393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beneteau KM, Aravena R, Frape SK (1999) Isotopic characterization of chlorinated solvents-laboratory and field results. Org Geochem 30:739–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berglund M, Wieser ME (2011) Isotopic compositions of the elements 2009 (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 83:397–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein A, Shouakar-Stash O, Ebert K, Laskov C, Hunkeler D, Jeannottat S, Sakaguchi-Söder K, Laaks J, Jochmann MA, Cretnik S, Jager J, Haderlein SB, Schmidt TC, Aravena R, Elsner M (2011) Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis: a comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry methods in an interlaboratory study. Anal Chem 83:7624–7634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DasGupta PK, Dyke JV, Kirk AB, Jackson WA (2006) Perchlorate in the United States. Analysis of relative source contributions to the food chain. Environ Sci Technol 40:6608–6614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ericksen GE (1981) Geology and origin of the Chilean nitrate deposits. USGS Prof Paper 1188:37 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Frost AA (1951) Oxidation potential—free energy diagrams. J Amer Chem Soc 73:2680–2683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Godon A, Jendrzejewski N, Eggenkamp HGM, Banks DA, Ader M, Coleman ML, Pineau F (2004) A cross calibration of chlorine isotopic measurements and suitability of seawater as the international reference material. Chem Geol 207:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanley J, Chevrier JF, Berget DJ, Adams RD (2012) Chlorate salts and solutions on Mars. Geophys Res Lett 39:L08201. doi: 10.1029/2012GL051239 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holt BD, Sturchio NC, Abrajano TA, Heraty LJ (1997) Conversion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and methyl chloride for isotopic analysis of carbon and chlorine. Anal Chem 69:2727–2733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jendrzejewski N, Eggenkamp HGM, Coleman ML (1997) Sequential determination of chlorine and carbon isotopic composition in single microliter samples of chlorinated solvent. Anal Chem 69:4259–4266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jin B, Laskov C, Rolle M, Haderlein SB (2011) Chlorine isotope analysis of organic contaminants using GCqMS: method optimization and comparison of different evaluation schemes. Environ Sci Technol 45:5279–5286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kang N, Jackson WA, Dasgupta PK, Anderson TA (2008) Perchlorate production by ozone oxidation of chloride in aqueous and dry systems. Sci Total Environ 405:301–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaufmann RS (1984) Chlorine in groundwater: stable isotope distribution. Ph.D. thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, ArizGoogle Scholar
  17. Kounaves SP, Stroble ST, Anderson RM, Moore Q, Catling DC, Douglas S, McKay CP, Ming DW, Smith PH, Tamppari LK, Zent AP (2010) Discovery of natural perchlorate in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and its global implications. Environ Sci Technol 44:2360–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu YD, Zhou AG, Gan YQ, Liu CF, Yu TT, Li XQ (2013) An online method to determine chlorine stable isotope composition by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) coupled with a Gasbench II. J South Centr Univ 20:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Michael GE, Miday RK, Bercz JP, Miller RG, Greathouse DG, Kraemer DF, Lucas JB (1981) Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study. Arch Environ Health 36:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parker DR, Seyfferth AL, Reese BK (2008) Perchlorate in groundwater: a synoptic survey of “pristine” sites in the conterminous Unites States. Environ Sci Technol 42:1465–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rajagopalan S, Anderson TA, Fahlquist L, Rainwater KA, Ridley M, Jackson WA (2006) Widespread presence of naturally occurring perchlorate in high plains of Texas and New Mexico. Environ Sci Technol 40:3156–3162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rao B, Hatzinger PB, Bohlke JK, Sturchio NC, Andraski BJ, Eckardt FD, Jackson WA (2010) Natural chlorate in the environment: application of a new IC-ESI/MS/MS method with a (ClO3 )–18O internal standard. Env Sci Tech 44:8429–8434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shirodkar PV, Xiao YK, Hai L (2003) Boron and chlorine isotopic signatures of seawater in the Central Indian ridge. Current Sci 85:313–320Google Scholar
  24. Shirodkar PV, Xiao YK, Sarkar A, Dalal SG, Chivas AR (2006) Influence of air-sea fluxes on chlorine isotopic composition of ocean water: Implications for constancy in δ37Cl—a statistical inference. Environ Intern 32:235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shouakar-Stash O, Drimmie RJ, Frape SK (2003) Stable hydrogen, carbon and chlorine isotope measurements of selected chlorinated organic solvents. J Contam Hydrol 60:211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shouakar-Stash O, Drimmie RJ, Zhang M, Frape SK (2006) Compound-specific chlorine isotope ratios of TCE, PCE and DCE isomers by direct injection using CF-IRMS. Appl Geoch 21:766–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sturchio NC, Böhlke JK, Gu BH, Hatzinger PB, Jackson WA (2011) Isotopic tracing of perchlorate in the environment. In: Baskaran M (ed) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry, Advances in Isotope Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  28. Van Acker MRMD, Shahar A, Young ED, Coleman ML (2006) GC/multiple collector-ICPMS method for chlorine stable isotope analysis of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Anal Chem 78:4663–4667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Van Warmerdam EM, Frape SK, Aravena R, Drimmie RJ, Flatt H, Cherry JA (1995) Stable chlorine and carbon isotope measurements of selected chlorinated organic solvents. Appl Geochem 10:547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wassenaar LI, Koehler G (2004) On-line technique for the determination of the δ37Cl of inorganic and total organic Cl in environmental samples. Anal Chem 76:6384–6388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. WHO (World Health Organization) (2005) Chlorite and chlorate in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. Available from http://www.who.int/entity/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/chlorateandchlorite0505.pdf. Last accessed 12 Aug 2014
  32. Xiao YK, Zhou YM, Wang QZ, Wei HZ, Liu WG, Eastoe CJ (2002) A secondary isotopic reference material of chlorine from selected seawater. Chem Geol 182:655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Onderzoek & BelevingBussumThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations