Competition, a Major Factor Structuring Seaweed Communities

Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 219)

Abstract

Competition among marine macroalgae for light, space, and nutrients can be a deterministic force in establishing biogeographic patterns of species distribution and abundance, regulating growth and reproduction, governing how populations respond to disturbances, and structuring coastal ecosystems. However, the direction, strength, and importance of these interactions vary considerably with species identity, location, and time that these interactions take place, and with changes to the physical and biological environment. As a result, many species have evolved special morphologies and/or life history traits that enable them to better access these resources and thus outcompete their neighbors, but these traits often come with trade-offs that may make them more susceptible to environmental stressors. Here, we review some of the main concepts related to how macroalgae compete for resources and provide case studies that demonstrate the importance of competition in structuring benthic communities.

Keywords

Turf Alga Kelp Forest Macrocystis Pyrifera Canopy Removal Kelp Canopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbott IA, Hollenberg GJ (1976) Marine algae of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CAGoogle Scholar
  2. Airoldi L (1998) Roles of disturbance, sediment stress, and substratum retention on spatial dominance in algal turf. Ecology 79:2759–2770Google Scholar
  3. Airoldi L, Balata D, Beck MW (2008) The gray zone: relationships between habitat loss and marine diversity and their applications in conservation. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 366:8–15Google Scholar
  4. Ambrose RF, Nelson BV (1982) Inhibition of giant kelp by an introduced brown alga. Bot Mar 25:265–267Google Scholar
  5. Anderson EK, North WJ (1969) Light requirements of juvenile and microscopic stages of giant kelp, Macrocystis. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 6:3–15Google Scholar
  6. Aparicio PJ, Roldán JM, Calero F (1976) Blue light photoreactivation of nitrate reductase from green algae and higher plants. Bioch Biophys Res Comm 70:1071–1977Google Scholar
  7. Bernstein BB, Jung N (1979) Selective pressures and coevolution in a kelp canopy in southern California. Ecol Monogr 49:335–355Google Scholar
  8. Bertness MD, Leonard GH (1997) The role of positive interactions in communities: lessons from intertidal habitats. Ecology 78:1976–1989Google Scholar
  9. Breda VA, Foster MS (1985) Composition, abundance, and phenology of foliose red algae associated with two central California kelp forests. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 94:15–130Google Scholar
  10. Brokaw NVL, Scheiner SM (1989) Species composition in gaps and structure of tropical forests. Ecology 70:538–541Google Scholar
  11. Bruno J, Bertness M (2001) Habitat modification and facilitation in benthic marine communities. In: Bertness M, Gaines S, Hay M (eds) Marine community ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sutherland, pp 201–220Google Scholar
  12. Canham CD (1989) Different responses to gaps among shade-tolerant tree species. Ecology 70:569–576Google Scholar
  13. Carney LT, Edwards MS (2010) Role of nutrient fluctuations and delayed development in gametophyte reproduction by Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) in southern California. J Phycol 46:987–996Google Scholar
  14. Carpenter RC (1990) Competition among macroalgae: a physiological perspective. J Phycol 26:6–12Google Scholar
  15. Cecchi LB, Cinelli F (1992) Canopy removal experiments in Cystoseira-dominated rockpools from the Western coast of the Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 15:569–583Google Scholar
  16. Clark RP, Edwards MS, Foster MS (2004) Effects of shade from multiple kelp canopies on an understory algal assemblage. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 267:107–119Google Scholar
  17. Collins BS, Dunne KP, Pickett TA (1985) Responses of forest herbs to canopy gaps. In: Pickett ST, White PS (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic, Orlando, pp 218–234Google Scholar
  18. Connell JH (1961) The influence opf interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stallatus. Ecology 42:710–723Google Scholar
  19. Connell JH (1980) Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35:131–138Google Scholar
  20. Connell JH (1989) Some processes affecting the species composition in forest gaps. Ecology 70:560Google Scholar
  21. Connell SD (2003a) Negative effects overpower the positive of kelp to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community. Oecologia 137:97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Connell SD (2003b) The monopolization of understorey habitat by subtidal encrusting coralline algae: a test of the combined effects of canopy-mediated light and sedimentation. Mar Biol 142:1065–1071Google Scholar
  23. Connell SD (2005) Assembly and maintenance of subtidal habitat heterogeneity: synergistic effects of light penetration and sedimentation. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 289:53–61Google Scholar
  24. Connell SD, Irving AD (2009) The subtidal ecology of rocky coasts: local-regional-biogeographic patterns and their experimental analysis. In: Witman JD, Kaustuv R (eds) Marine macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 392–417Google Scholar
  25. Connell SD, Russell BD (2010) The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests. Proc R Soc B-Biol Sci 277:1409–1415Google Scholar
  26. Connell SD, Russell BD, Turner DJ, Shepherd SA, Kildea T, Miller DJ, Airoldi L, Cheshire A (2008) Recovering a lost baseline: missing kelp forests from a metropolitan coast. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 360:63–72Google Scholar
  27. Cowen RK, Agegian CR, Foster MS (1982) The maintenance of community structure in a central California giant kelp forest. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 64:189–201Google Scholar
  28. Creese RG, Underwood AJ (1982) Analysis of inter- and intra-specific competition amongst limpets with different methods of feeding. Oecologia 53:337–346Google Scholar
  29. Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Dayton PK (1975) Experimental evaluation of ecological dominance in a rocky intertidal algal community. Ecol Monogr 45:137–159Google Scholar
  31. Dayton PK, Tegner MJ (1984) The importance of scale in community ecology: a kelp forest example with terrestrial analogs. In: Price PW, Slobodchikoff CN, Gaud WS (eds) A new ecology: novel approaches to interactive systems. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Dayton PK, Currie V, Gerrodette TB, Keller D, Rosenthal R, VanTresca D (1984) Patch dynamics and stability of some California Kelp Communities. Ecol Monogr 54:253–289Google Scholar
  33. Dayton PK, Tegner MJ, Parnell PE, Edwards PB (1992) Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecol Monogr 62:421–445Google Scholar
  34. Dayton PK, Tegner MJ, Edwards PB, Riser KL (1999) Temporal and spatial scales of kelp demography: the role of oceanographic climate. Ecol Monogr 69:219–250Google Scholar
  35. Dean TA, Thies K, Lagos SL (1989) Survival of juvenile giant kelp: the effects of demographic factors, competitors, and grazers. Ecology 70:483–495Google Scholar
  36. Devinny YS (1978) Ordination of seaweed communities: environmental gradients at Punta Banda, Mexico. Bot Mar 21:357–363Google Scholar
  37. Diamond JM (1978) Niche shifts and the rediscovery of intraspecific competition. Am Sci 66:322–331Google Scholar
  38. Duggins DO, Dethier MN (1985) Experimental studies of herbivory and algal competition in a low intertidal habitat. Oecologia 67:183–191Google Scholar
  39. Edwards MS (1998) Effects of long-term kelp canopy exclusion on the abundance of the annual alga Desmarestia ligulata (Light F). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 228:309–326Google Scholar
  40. Edwards MS (2004) Estimating scale dependency in disturbance impacts: El Niños and giant kelp forests in the Northeast Pacific. Oecologia 138:436–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Edwards MS, Hernández-Carmona G (2005) Delayed recovery of giant kelp near its southern range limit in the North Pacific following El Niño. Mar Biol 147:273–279Google Scholar
  42. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Lee K, Berelson W, Kleypas J, Fabry V, Millero FJ (2004) Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305:362–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fejtek SM, Edwards MS, Kim KY (2011) Elk kelp, Pelagophycus porra, distribution limited due to susceptibility of microscopic stages to high light. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 396:194–20Google Scholar
  44. Flores-Moya A, Ferández JA, Niell FX (1996) Growth pattern, reproduction and self-thinning in seaweeds: a re-evaluation in reply to Scrosati. J Phycol 32:767–769Google Scholar
  45. Foster MS (1975) Regulation of algal community development in the Macrocystis pyrifera forest. Mar Biol 32:331–342Google Scholar
  46. Foster MS (1982) The regulation of macroalgal associations in kelp forests. In: Srivastava L (ed) Synthetic and degradative processes in marine macrophytes. Walter de Gruyter Co., BerlinGoogle Scholar
  47. Foster MS, VanBlaricom GR (2001) Spatialvariation in kelp forest communities along the Big Sur coast of central California USA. Cryptogamie Algol 22:173–186Google Scholar
  48. Fujita RM (1985a) The role of nitrogeno suplí variability in regulating nitrogen uptake by macroalgae and in structuring a macroalgal community. Ph.D. thesis, Boston University, Massachusetts, p 143Google Scholar
  49. Fujita RM (1985b) The role of nitrogen status in regulating transient ammonium uptake and nitrogen storage by macroalgae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 92:283–301Google Scholar
  50. Gao K, McKinley KR (1994) Use of macroalgae for marine biomass production and CO2 remediation. A review. J Appl Phycol 6:45–60Google Scholar
  51. Gause GF (1934) The struggle for existence. Hafner Publ. Co, New York, p 163Google Scholar
  52. Gerard VA (1984) The light environment in a giant kelp forest: influence of Macrocystis pyrifera on spatial and temporal variability. Mar Biol 84:189–195Google Scholar
  53. Gorgula SK, Connell SD (2004) Expansive covers of turf-forming algae on human-dominated coast: the relative effects of increasing nutrient and sediment loads. Mar Biol 145:613–619Google Scholar
  54. Gorman D, Connell SD (2009) Recovering subtidal forests on human-dominated landscapes. J Appl Ecol 46:1258–1265Google Scholar
  55. Gorman D, Russell BD, Connell SD (2009) Land-to-sea connectivity: linking human-derived terrestrial subsidies to subtidal habitat change on open rocky coasts. Ecol Appl 19:1114–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Graham MH (1996) Effect of high irradiance on recruitment of the giant kelp Macrocystis. J Phycol 32:903–906Google Scholar
  57. Graham MH (1997) Factors determining the upper limit of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, along the Monterey Peninsula, central California, USA. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 218:127–149Google Scholar
  58. Grime JP (1974) Vegetation classification by reference to strategies. Nature 250:26–31Google Scholar
  59. Grime JP (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat 111:1169–1194Google Scholar
  60. Grime JP (1979) Plant strategies and vegetation processes. Wiley, New York, p 222Google Scholar
  61. Hackney JM, Carpenter RC, Adey WH (1989) Characteristic adaptations to grazing among algal turfs on a Caribbean coral reef. Phycologia 28:109–119Google Scholar
  62. Hairston NG, Smith FE, Slobodkin LB (1960) Community structure, population control, and competition. Am Nat 94:421–425Google Scholar
  63. Harrold CJ, Watanabe J, Lisin S (1988) Spatial variation in the structure of kelp forest communities along a wave exposure gradient. P.S.Z.N.I. Mar Ecol 9:131–156Google Scholar
  64. Hawkings SJ, Hartnoll RG (1985) Grazing on intertidal algae by marine invertebrates. Ocean Mar Biol Annu Rev 21:195–282Google Scholar
  65. Hay ME (1986) The functional morphology of turf-forming seaweeds: persistence in stressful marine habitats. Ecology 62:739–750Google Scholar
  66. Hay ME (1994) Species as ‘noise’ in community ecology: do seaweeds block our view of the kelp forest? Trends Ecol Evol 9:414–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hernández-Carmona G, Robledo D, Serviere-Zaragoza E (2001) Effect of nutrient availability on Macrocystis pyrifera recruitment survival near its southern limit of Baja California. Bot Mar 44:221–229Google Scholar
  68. Horn HS (1971) The adaptive geometry of trees. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 144Google Scholar
  69. Hruby T, Norton TA (1979) Algal colonization on rocky shores in the Firth of Clyde. J Ecol 67:65–77Google Scholar
  70. Hubbell SP, Foster RB, O’Brien ST, Harms KE, Condit R, Welchsler B, Wright SJ, Loo se Lao S (1999) Light-gap disturbances, recruitment limitation, and tree diversity in a neotropical forest. Science 283:554–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hurd CL, Stevens CL, Laval BE, Lawrence GA, Harrison PJ (1997) Visualization of seawater flow around morphologically distinct forms of giant kelp Macrocystis integrifolia from wave-sheltered and exposed sites. Limnol Oceanogr 42:156–163Google Scholar
  72. Irving AD, Connell SD (2006) Physical disturbance by kelp abrades erect algae from the understorey. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 324:127–137Google Scholar
  73. Irving AD, Connell SD, Gillanders BM (2004) Local complexity in patterns of canopy-benthos associations produce regional patterns across temperate Australasia. Mar Biol 144:361–368Google Scholar
  74. Jackson GA, Winant CD (1983) Effects of a kelp forest on coastal currents. Cont Shelf Res 2:75–80Google Scholar
  75. Kastendiek J (1982) Competitor-mediated coexistence: interactions among three species of benthic macroalgae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 62:201–210Google Scholar
  76. Kennelly SJ (1987a) Physical disturbances in an Australian kelp community II. Effects on understorey species due to differences in kelp cover. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40:155–165Google Scholar
  77. Kennelly SJ (1987b) Physical disturbances in an Australian kelp community I. Temporal effects. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40:145–153Google Scholar
  78. Kennelly SJ (1989) Effects of canopies on understory species due to shade and scour. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 50:215–224Google Scholar
  79. Kennelly SJ, Underwood AJ (1993) Geographic consistencies of effects of experimental physical disturbance on understory species in sublittoral kelp forests in central New South Wales. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 168:35–58Google Scholar
  80. Kimura S, Foster MS (1984) The effects of harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera on the algal assemblage in a giant kelp forest. Hydrobiology 116(117):425–428Google Scholar
  81. Kirk JTO (1992) The nature and measurement of the light environment in the ocean. In: Falkowski A (ed) Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea. Plenum, New York, pp 9–29Google Scholar
  82. Kitching JA (1941) Studies in sublittoral ecology: III. Laminaria Ffrest on the west coast of Scotland; a study of zonation in relation to wave action and illumination. Biol Bull 80:324–337Google Scholar
  83. Konar BK, Estes JA (2003) The stability of boundary regions between kelp beds and deforested areas. Ecology 84:174–185Google Scholar
  84. Kuffner IB, Walters LJ, Becerro MA, Paul VJ, Ritson-Williams R, Beach KS (2006) Inhibition of coral recruitment by macroalgae and cyanobacteria. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 323:107–117Google Scholar
  85. Kursar TA, Coley PD (1999) Contrasting modes of light acclimation in two species of the rain forest understory. Oecologia 121:489–498Google Scholar
  86. Lotka AJ (1925) Elements of physical biology. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  87. Lüning K (1981) Egg release in gametophytes of Laminaria saccharina: induction by darkness and inhibition by blue light and U.V. Br Phycol J 16:379–393Google Scholar
  88. Lüning K (1986) New frond formation in Laminaria hyperborean (Phaeophyta): a photoperiodic response. Br Phycol J 21:269–273Google Scholar
  89. Lüning K (1990) Circannual growth rhythm in a brown alga, Pterygophora californica. Bot Acta 104:157–162Google Scholar
  90. Lüning K (1994) When do algae grow? The third founders lecture. Eur J Phycol 29:61–67Google Scholar
  91. Lüning K, Kadel P (1993) Daylength range for circannual rhythmicity in Pterygophora californica (Alariaceae, Phaophyta) and synchronization of seasonal growth by daylength cycles in several other brown algae. Phycologia 32:379–387Google Scholar
  92. McCook LJ, Jompa J, Diaz-Pulido G (2001) Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: a review of evidence and mechanisms. Coral Reefs 19:400–417Google Scholar
  93. Melville AJ, Connell SD (2001) Experimental effects of kelp canopies on subtidal coralline algae. Aust Ecol 26:102–108Google Scholar
  94. Miller RS (1967) Pattern and process in competition. Adv Ecol Res 4:1–74Google Scholar
  95. Neushul M, Harger BWW (1985) Studies of biomass yield from a near-shore macroalgal test farm. J Solar Energ Eng 107:93–96Google Scholar
  96. North WJ, Jackson GA, Manley SL (1986) Macrocystis and its environment, knowns and unknowns. Aquat Bot 26:9–26Google Scholar
  97. Novaczek (1984) Response of Eklonia radiata (Laminariales) to light at 15 °C with reference to the field light budget at Goat Island Bay, New Zealand. Mar Biol: 263–272Google Scholar
  98. Olson AM, Lubchenco J (1990) Competition in seaweeds: linking plant traits to competitive outcomes. J Phycol 26:1–6Google Scholar
  99. Orr JC, Fabry VJ, Aumont O, Bopp L, Doney SC, Feely RA, Gnanadesikan A, Nicolas Gruber N, Ishida A, Joos F, Key RM, Lindsay K, Maier-Reimer E, Matear R, Patrick Monfray P, Mouchet A, Najjar RG, Plattner GK, Rodgers KB, Sabine CL, Sarmiento JL, Schlitzer R, Slater RD, Totterdell IJN, Weirig MF, Yamanaka Y, Yool A (2005) Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impacts on calcifying organisms. Nature 437:681–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Padilla DK (2003) The importance of form: differences in competitive ability, resistance to consumers and environmental stress in an assemblage of coralline algae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 79:105–127Google Scholar
  101. Pearse JS, Hines AH (1979) Expansion of central California kelp forests following the mass mortality of sea urchins. Mar Biol 51:83–91Google Scholar
  102. Ramus J (1981) The capture and transduction of light energy. In: Lobban C, Wynne M (eds) The biology of seaweeds. Blackwell, Oxford RamusGoogle Scholar
  103. Reed DC (1987) Factors affecting the production of sporophylls in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.Ag. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 113:61–69Google Scholar
  104. Reed DC (1990) The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology 71:776–787Google Scholar
  105. Reed DC, Foster MS (1984) The effects of canopy shading on algal recruitment and growth in a giant kelp forest. Ecology 65:937–948Google Scholar
  106. Roleda MY, Wiencke C, van de Poll WH, Gruber A (2005) Sensitivity of Laminariales zoospores from Helgoland (North Sea) to ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation: implications for depth distribution and seasonal reproduction. Plant Cell Environ 28:466–479Google Scholar
  107. Rosenberg G, Ramus J (1982) Ecological growth strategies in the seaweeds Gracilaria folifera (Rhodophyceae) and Ulva sp. (Chlorophyceae): photosynthesis and antenna composition. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8:233–241Google Scholar
  108. Roughgarden J (1979) Theory of population genetics and evolutionary ecology: an introduction. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  109. Russell BD, Connell SD (2005) A novel interaction between nutrients and grazers alters relative dominance of marine habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 289:5–11Google Scholar
  110. Saffo MB (1987) New light on seaweeds. Bioscience 37:654–664Google Scholar
  111. Santelices B, Aedo D, Hormazábal M, Flores V (2003) Field testing of inter- and intraspecific coalescence among mid-intertidal red algae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 250:91–103Google Scholar
  112. Schmid R, Dring MJ (1996) Blue light and carbon acquisition in brown algae: an overview and recent developments. Sci Mar 60:115–124Google Scholar
  113. Scrosati R (2005) Review of studies on biomass-density relationship (including self-thinning lines) in seaweeds: Main contributions and persisting misconceptions. Phycol Res 53:224–233Google Scholar
  114. Scrosati R (2006) Crowding in clonal seaweeds: does self-thinning occur in Mastocarpus papillatus shortl;y before stand biomass peaks? Aquat Bot 84:233–238Google Scholar
  115. Seymour RJ, Tegner MJ, Dayton PK, Parnell PE (1989) Storm wave induced mortality of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, in southern California. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 28:277–292Google Scholar
  116. Solé J, Garía-Ladona E, Ruardij P, Estrada M (2005) Modelling allelopathy among marine algae. Ecol Model 183:373–384Google Scholar
  117. Sousa WP (1979) Experimental investigations of disturbance and ecological succession in a rocky intertidal algal community. Ecol Monogr 49:227–254Google Scholar
  118. Spies TA, Franklin JF (1989) Gap characteristics and vegetation response in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 70:543–545Google Scholar
  119. Steneck RS (1986) The ecology of coralline algal crusts: convergent patterns and adaptive strategies. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 17:273–303Google Scholar
  120. Steneck RS (1997) Crustose corallines, other algal functional groups, herbivores and sediments: complex interactions along reef productivity gradients. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:695–700Google Scholar
  121. Steneck RS, Paine RT (1986) Ecological and taxonomic studies of shallow-water encrusting Corallinaceae (Rhodophyta) of the boreal northeastern Pacific. Phycologia 25:221–240Google Scholar
  122. Strong DR (1980) Null hypotheses in ecology. Synthese 43:271–285Google Scholar
  123. Titman D (1976) Ecological competition between algae: experimental confirmation of resource-based competition theory. Science 192:463–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Underwood AJ, Fairweather PG (1986) Intertidal communities: do they have different ecologies or ecologists? Proc Ecol Soc Aust 14:7–16Google Scholar
  125. Vadas R (1972) Ecological implications of culture studies on Nereocystis luetkeana. J Phycol 8:196–203Google Scholar
  126. Vadas RL, Steneck RS (1988) Zonation of deep water algae ion the Gulf of Maine. J Phycol 24:338–346Google Scholar
  127. Velimirov B, Griffiths CL (1979) Wave-induced kelp movement and its importance for community structure. Bot Mar 22:169–172Google Scholar
  128. Volterra V (1926) Variazioni e fluttuazioni del numero d'individui in specie animali conviventi. Mem R Accad Naz dei Lincei Ser. VI, 2Google Scholar
  129. Weins JA (1977) On competition and variable environments. Am Sci 65:590–597Google Scholar
  130. Wernberg T, Thomsen MA, Tuya F, Kendrick GA, Staehr PA, Toohley BD (2010) Decreasing resilience of kelp beds along a latitudinal temperature gradient: potential implications for a warmer future. Ecol Lett 13:685–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wernberg T, Russell BC, Moore PJ, Ling SD, Smale DA, Campbell A, Coleman MA, Steinberg PD, Kendrick GA, Connell SD (2011) Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 400:7–16Google Scholar
  132. Whitmore TC (1989) Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees. Ecology 70:569–576Google Scholar
  133. Wiencke C, Gómez I, Pakker H, Flores-Moya A, Altamirano M, Hanelt D, Bischof K, Figueroa FL (2000) Impact of UV radiation on viability, photosynthetic characteristics and DNA of brown algal zoospores: implications for depth zonation. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 197:217–229Google Scholar
  134. Winant CD, Bratovich AW (1981) Temperature and currents on the southern California shelf: a description of the variability. Phys Oceanogr 11:71–86Google Scholar
  135. Witman JD (1987) Subtidal coexistence: storms, grazing, mutualism, and the zonation of kelps and mussels. Ecol Monogr 57:167–187Google Scholar
  136. Wootton JT (1994) The nature and consequences of indirect effects in ecological communities. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 25:443–466Google Scholar
  137. Worm B, Lotze HK, Boström C, Engkvist R, Labanauskas V, Sommer U (1999) Marine diversity shift linked to interactionsamong grazers, nutrients and propagule banks. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 185:309–314Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Southern Seas Ecology Laboratories, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations