Advertisement

Seaweed and Man

  • Cornelia M. Buchholz
  • Gesche Krause
  • Bela H. Buck
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 219)

Abstract

Seaweeds have been utilized by man as food and medication for about 14,000 years. The ever rising demand for edible seaweeds and for biochemical components of seaweeds, mainly hydrocolloids like agar, alginate, and carrageenan, has fuelled a large aquaculture industry particularly in Asia. Future expansion of seaweed culture will include suitable farming sites in offshore areas associated with wind farms. Seaweeds as extractive and therefore bioremedial species are moreover an important component in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA), where commercially valuable organisms of different trophic levels are combined in a culturing system resembling a small ecosystem. The employment created by seaweeds and other aquaculture secures an income to millions of people and is therefore of high socioeconomic importance.

Keywords

Wind Farm Seaweed Extract Shrimp Culture Ascophyllum Nodosum Aquaculture Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abreu MA, Varela DA, Henríquez L, Villarroel A, Yarish C, Sousa-Pinto I, Buschmann AJ (2009) Traditional vs. Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture of Gracilaria chilensis Bird CJ, McLachlan J & Oliveira EC: Productivity and physiological performance. Aquaculture 293:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abreu MH, Pereira R, Yarish C, Buschmann AH, Sousa-Pinto I (2011) IMTA with Gracilaria vermiculophylla: Productivity and nutrient removal performance of the seaweed in a land-based pilot scale system. Aquaculture 312:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker KD (1949) Conchocelis-phase in the life-history of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) Kütz. Nature 164:748–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrington K, Chopin T, Robinson S (2009) Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine temperate waters. In: Soto D (ed) Integrated mariculture: a global review. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 529, Rome. FAO pp 7–46Google Scholar
  5. Bartsch I, Wiencke C, Bischof K, Buchholz CM, Buck BH, Eggert A, Feuerpfeil P, Hanelt D, Jacobsen S, Karez R, Karsten U, Molis M, Roleda MY, Schumann R, Schubert H, Valentin K, Weinberger F, Wiese J (2008) The genus Laminaria sensu lato: recent insights and developments. Eu J Phycol 43(1):1–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bidwell RGS, McLachlan J, Lloyd NDH (1985) Tank cultivation of Irish Moss, Chondrus crispus. Bot Mar 28:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bixler HJ, Porse H (2011) A decade of change in seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J Appl Phycol 23:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braden KW, Blanton JR, Montgomery JL, van Santen E, Allen VG, Miller MF (2007) Tasco supplementation: Effects on carcass characteristics, sensory attributes, and retail display shelf-life. J Anim Sci 85:754–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bridger CJ, Costa-Pierce BA (2003) Open ocean aquaculture: from research to commercial reality. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  10. Buchholz C, Lüning K (1999) Isolated, distal blade discs of the brown alga Laminaria digitata form sorus, but not discs, near to the meristematic transition zone. J Appl Phycol 16:579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buck BH (2002) Open Ocean Aquaculture und Offshore Windparks. Eine Machbarkeitsstudie über die multifunktionale Nutzung von Offshore-Windparks und Offshore-Marikultur im Raum Nordsee, Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung = Reports on polar and marine research, 412, p 252Google Scholar
  12. Buck BH (2004). Farming in a High Energy Environment: Potentials and Constraints of Sustainable Offshore Aquaculture in the German Bight (North Sea), Dissertation, University of Bremen, p 258Google Scholar
  13. Buck BH, Buchholz CM (2004) The offshore-ring: a new system design for the open ocean aquaculture of macroalgae. J Appl Phycol 16(5):355–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buck BH, Buchholz CM (2005) Response of offshore cultivated Laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the North Sea. Aquaculture 250:674–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buck BH, Krause G (2012) Integration of Aquaculture and Renewable Energy Systems. In: Meyers RA (ed) Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Springer Science + Business Media LLC. Chapter No. 180 http://www.springer.com/physics/book/978-0-387-89469-0. Cited 10 Oct 2011
  16. Buck BH, Krause G, Rosenthal H (2004) Extensive open ocean aquaculture development within wind farms in Germany: the prospect of offshore co-management and legal constraints. Ocean Coast Manag 47(3–4):95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buck B, Krause G, Michler-Cieluch T, Brenner M, Buchholz C, Busch J, Fisch R, Geisen M, Zielinski O (2008) Meeting the quest for spatial efficiency: progress and prospects of extensive aquaculture within offshore wind farms. Helg Mar Res 62:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buschmann AH, Hernández-González MC, Aranda C, Chopin T, Neori A, Halling C, Troell M (2008) Mariculture waste management. In: Jørgensen SE, Fath BD (eds) Encyclopedia of ecology, vol 3, Ecological engineering. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 2211–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Butterworth A (2010) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture systems incorporating abalone and seaweeds; Report for Nuffield Australia Project No 0914 http://www.nuffieldinternational.org/rep_pdf/1287395494Nuffield_Report-_Adam_Butterworth.pdf. Cited 10 Oct 2011
  20. Casas-Valdez M, Portillo-Clark G, Aguila-Ramirez N, Rodriguez-Astudillo S, Sanchez-Rodriguez I, Carillo-Dominguez S (2006) Effect of the marine alga Sargassum spp. On the productive parameters and cholesterol content of the brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900). Revista Biol Mar Oceanogr 41:97–105, in Spanish, English abstractGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen J (2006) Cultured aquatic species information programme—Laminaria japonica. Cultured Aquatic Species Fact Sheets. FAO Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service (FIRI)Google Scholar
  22. Chopin T, Yarish C, Wilkes R, Belyea E, Lu S, Mathieson A (1999) Developing Porphyra/salmon integrated aquaculture for bioremediation and diversification of the aquaculture industry. J Appl Phycol 11:463–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chopin T, Buschmann AH, Halling C, Troell M, Kautsky N, Neori A, Kraemer GP, Zertuche-Gonzalez JA, Yarish C, Neefus C (2001) Integrating seaweeds into mariculture systems: a key towards sustainability. J Phycol 37:975–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chopin T, Robinson SMC, Troell M, Neori A, Buschmann AH, Fang J (2008) Multitrophic integration for sustainable marine aquaculture. In: Jørgensen SE, Fath BD (eds) Encyclopedia of ecology, vol 3, Ecological engineering. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 2463–2475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chung IK, Beardall J, Mehta S, Sahoo D, Stojkovic S (2011) Using marine macroalgae for carbon sequestration:a critical appraisal. J Appl Phycol 23:877–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CIMTAN, Aquaculture R&D Review (2011) Aquaculture Association of Canada Special Publication 16 (2011). ISBN: 978-0-9780943-5-5: 24–30 http://www.aquacultureassociation.ca/publications/special. Cited 20 Aug 2011
  27. Cook EJ, Kelly MS (2007) Enhanced production of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in integrated open-water cultivation with Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquaculture 273:573–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Corbin JS (2007) Hawaii aquaculture development: twenty-five years and counting, lessons learned. In: Leung P, Lee CS, O’Bryen PJ (eds) Species and system selection for sustainable aquaculture. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, pp 209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary (2002–2011) Algae http://www.cosmeticscop.com/cosmetic-ingredient-dictionary/A.aspx. Cited 16 Dec 2011
  30. Craigie JS (2011) Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. J Appl Phycol 23:371–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Critchley AT, Ohno M (1997) Cultivation and Farming of Marine Plants. Biodiversity of Expert Centre for Taxonomic Identification (ETI). CD-ROM Version 1.0. Springer Electronic Media Dept, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Cross (2010) Problem to Opportunity—Use of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, to control biofouling in an Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture System. The World Aquaculture Society Meeting 2010 San Diego, CA https://www.was.org/WasMeetings/Meetings/SessionAbstracts.aspx?Code=AQ2010. Cited 20 Aug 2011
  33. Dawes CP (1988) Seaweed culture technology. In: Consultants M, Munro A (eds) Feasibility study on the technology of mariculture. Vol. II: Review of technologies and services. Aberdeen, University Marine Studies, pp 107–116Google Scholar
  34. Dillehay TD, Ramírez C, Pino M, Collins MB, Rossen J, Pino-Navarro JD (2008) Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America. Science 320:784–786. doi: 10.1126/science.1156533 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. FAO (2005–2011a) Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Porphyra spp. Text by Jiaxin Chen and Pu Xu. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 18 February 2005. http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Porphyra_spp/en, Cited 11 Oct 2011
  36. FAO (2005–2011b) Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Laminaria japonica. Text by Chen J. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 1 January 2004. http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Laminaria_japonica/en, Cited 13 Jul 2011
  37. FAO (2005–2011c) Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Eucheuma spp. Text by Gavino C. Trono Jr. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 13 January 2005. http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Eucheuma_spp/en#tcNA0050, Cited 10 Oct 2011
  38. FAO (2010–2011) Fisheries Global Information System (FAO-FIGIS) In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. http://www.fao.org/fishery/figis/en, Cited 13 Dec 2011
  39. FAO (2010a) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 (SOFIA). FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Rome, p 197. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e00.htm, Cited 10 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  40. FAO (2010b) 2008 FAO Yearbook of Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics. ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/CDrom/CD_yearbook_2008/navigation/index_content_aquaculture_e.htm. Cited 10 Oct 2011
  41. FAO (2011a) FAO Fisheries Department, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. FishStatPlus. Universal Software for fishery statistical time series. Version 2.3 in 2000. Last database update in April 2011Google Scholar
  42. FAO (2011b) Fishery Statistical Collections Global Aquaculture Production, Status http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-aquaculture-production. Cited 10 Oct 2011
  43. FAO (2011c) National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) http://www.fao.org/fishery/naso/search/en Cited 10 Oct 2011
  44. Fei X (2004) Solving the coastal eutrophication problem by large scale seaweed cultivation. Hydrobiologia 512:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. George M, Abraham TE (2006) Polyonic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: Alginate and chitosan—a review. J Control Release 114:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gómez I, Lüning K (2001) Constant short–day treatment of outdoor–cultivated Laminaria digitata prevents summer drop growth rate. Eur J Phycol 36:391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hasegawa Y (1971) Forced cultivation of Laminaria. Bull Hokkaido Reg Fish Res Lab 37:49–52Google Scholar
  48. Hesley C (1997) Open Ocean Aquaculture: Chartering the Future of Ocean Farming. In: Proceedings of an International Conference, April 23–25, 1997, Maui, Hawaii. UNIHI-Seagrant-CP-98-08, Maui, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program p 353Google Scholar
  49. Holt TJ and Kain (Jones) JM (1983) The cultivation of large brown algae as an energy crop. In: Strub A, Chartier and Schleser P (eds) Energy from biomass 2nd conference, Applied Science Publishers, London, pp 319–323Google Scholar
  50. ICES (2011): Report of the Study Group on Social Dimensions of Aquaculture (SGSA). Bremen, Germany p 33Google Scholar
  51. Indergaard M, Østgaard K (1991) Polysaccharides for food and pharmaceutical uses. In: Guiry MD, Blunden G (eds) Seaweed resources in Europe. Uses and potential. Wiley, Chichester, pp 169–183Google Scholar
  52. Kain JM (1991) Cultivation of attached seaweeds. In: Guiry MD, Blunden G (eds) Seaweed resources in Europe: uses and potential. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 309–377Google Scholar
  53. Kain JM, Dawes CP (1987) Useful European seaweeds: past hopes and present cultivation. Hydrobiologia 151(152):173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kawashima S (1984) Kombu cultivation in Japan for human foodstuff. Jpn J Phycol 32:379–394Google Scholar
  55. Krause G, Buck BH, Rosenthal H (2003) Multifunctional use and environmental regulations: potentials in the offshore aquaculture development in Germany, rights and duties in the coastal zone—multidisciplinary scientific Conference on sustainable coastal zone management, 12–14 June 2003, Stockholm (Sweden)Google Scholar
  56. Langan R, Newell RIE, McVey JP, Newell C, Sowles JW, Rensel JE, Yarish C (2006) Country scenarios for ecosystem approaches for aquaculture: The United States. In: McVey JP, Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ (eds) Aquaculture and ecosystems: an integrated coastal and ocean management approach. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, pp 109–140Google Scholar
  57. Lombardi JV, de Almeida Marques HL, Lima Pereira RT, Salée Barreto J, de Paula EJ (2006) Cage polyculture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the Philippines seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. Aquaculture 258:412–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Løvstad Holdt S, Kraan S (2011) Bioactive compounds in seaweed: functional food applications and legislation. J Appl Phycol 23:543–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lowther A (2006) Highlights from the FAO database on Aquaculture Statistics. FAO Aquacult Newsletter 35:32–33Google Scholar
  60. Lüning K, Pang S (2003) Mass cultivation of seaweeds: current aspects and approaches. J Appl Phycol 15:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lüning K, Wagner A, Buchholz C (2000) Evidence for inhibitors of sporangium formation in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) during the season of rapid growth. J Phycol 36:1129–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marra J (2005) When will we tame the oceans? Nature 436:175–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mc Hugh, DJ (2003) A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries Technical Papers T441Google Scholar
  64. McVey JP, Buck BH (2008) IMTA-Design within an Offshore Wind Farm, “Aquaculture for Human Wellbeing—The Asian Perspective”. The Annual Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society, 23rd May 2008, Busan (Korea)Google Scholar
  65. McVey JP, Stickney R, Yarish C, Chopin T (2002) Aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production. In: Stickney RR, McVey JP (eds) Responsible aquaculture. CABI Wallingford, UK, pp 91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Merrill JE, Gillingham DM (1991) Bull kelp cultivation handbook. Publication No. NCRI-T-91-011. National Coastal Research and Development Institute, Portland, Oregon, USAGoogle Scholar
  67. Michler-Cieluch T (2009) Co-Management processes in integrated coastal management : the case of integrating marine aquaculture in offshore wind farms. PhD Thesis, University of HamburgGoogle Scholar
  68. Msuya FE (1997) Women seaweed farmers in the Zanzibar Islands, Tanzania. InterCoast Network Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA, 29Google Scholar
  69. Msuya FE (2006) The impact of seaweed farming on the social and economic structure of seaweed farming communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania. In: Critchley AT, Ohno M, Largo DB (eds), World Seaweed Resources, Version: 1.0. p 27Google Scholar
  70. Msuya FE, Shalli MS, Sullivan K, Crawford B, Tobey J, Mmochi AJ (2007) A comparative economic analysis of two seaweed farming methods in Tanzania. The sustainable coastal communities and ecosystems program. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island and the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association, p 27Google Scholar
  71. Murata M, Nakazoe J (2001) Production and use of marine algae in Japan. Jpn Agr Res Q 35:281–290Google Scholar
  72. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Neori A, Chopin T, Troell M, Buschmann AH, Kraemer GP, Halling C, Shpigel M, Yarish C (2004) Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture. Aquaculture 231:361–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Neori A, Troell M, Chopin T, Yarish C, Critchley A, Buschmann AH (2007) The need for ecological balance in “blue revolution” aquaculture. Environment 49:36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nobre AM, Robertson-Andersson D, Neori A, Sankar K (2010) Ecological–economic assessment of aquaculture options: comparison between abalone monoculture and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture of abalone and seaweeds. Aquaculture 306:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. North WJ (1987) Oceanic farming of Macrocystis. The problems and non-problems. In: Bird KT, Benson PH (eds) Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Sciences, vol 16. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 39–67Google Scholar
  77. Ohno M (1993) Cultivation methods and physiological aspect for edible seaweeds in Japan. Ser Ocasional 2:163–170Google Scholar
  78. Pang SJ, Lüning K (2004) Breaking seasonal limitation: year-round sporogenesis in the brown alga Laminaria saccharina by blocking the transport of putative sporulation inhibitors. Aquaculture 240:531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pereira R, Yarish C (2008) Mass production of marine macroalgae. In: Jørgensen SE, Fath BD (eds) Encyclopedia of ecology, vol 3, Ecological engineering. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 2236–2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pereira R, Yarish C (2010) The role of Porphyra in sustainable culture systems: physiology and applications. In: Israel A, Einav R (eds) Seaweeds and their role in a globally changing environment. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 339–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pereira R, Yarish C, Critchley A (2012) Seaweed aquaculture for human foods, land based. In: Costa-Pierce BA (ed) Ocean farming and sustainable aquaculture science and technology. Encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology. Springer Science, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  82. Petrell RJ, Alie SY (1996) Integrated cultivation of salmonids and seaweeds in open systems. Hydrobiologia 326(327):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Polk M (1996) Open Ocean Aquaculture. Proceedings of an International Conference, 8-10 May 1996, Portland, Maine. UNHMP-CP-SG-96-9, Portland, New Hamshire/Maine Sea Grant College Program, p 642Google Scholar
  84. Rawson MV Jr, Chen C, Ji R, Zhu M, Wang D, Wang L, Yarish C, Sullivan JB, Chopin T, Carmona R (2002) Understanding the interaction of extractive and fed aquaculture using ecosystem modeling. In: Stickney RR, McVey JP (eds) Responsible aquaculture. CABI Wallingford, UK, pp 263–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rensel JE, Buschmann AH, Chopin T, Chung IK, Grant J, Helsley CE, Kiefer DA, Langan R, Newell RIE, Rawson M, Sowles JW, McVey JP, Yarish C (2006) Ecosystem based management: models and mariculture. In: McVey JP, Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ (eds) Aquaculture and ecosystems: An integrated coastal and ocean management approach. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, pp 207–220Google Scholar
  86. Robertson-Andersson DV, Potgieter M, Hansen J, Bolton JJ, Troell M, Anderson RJ, Halling C, Probyn T (2008) Integrated seaweed cultivation on an abalone farm in South Africa. J Appl Phycol 20:579–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Roesijadi G, Copping AE, Huesemann MH, Forster J, Benemann JR (2008) Techno-economic feasibility analysis of offshore seaweed farming for bioenergy and biobased products. Independent research and development report IR # PNWD-3931, Battelle Pacific Northwest Division, p 115Google Scholar
  88. Ryan J (2005) Offshore aquaculture—do we need it, and why is it taking so long? International Salmon Farmers Association (Ireland). Expert workshop on “Sustainable Aquaculture. DG JRC European Commission, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, 17–18 Jan 2005 SevilleGoogle Scholar
  89. Ryther JD, Deboer JA, Lapointe BE (1979) Cultivation of seaweeds for hydrocolloids, waste treatment and biomass for energy conversion. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 9:1–16Google Scholar
  90. Sahoo D, Yarish C (2005) Mariculture of seaweeds. In: Andersen R (ed) Phycological methods: algal culturing techniques. Academic, Elsevier, Oxford, New York, pp 219–237Google Scholar
  91. Sanderson JK (2009) Bioremediation using seaweed culture. Reducing the environmental impact of sea-cage fish farming through cultivation of seaweed. SAMS, UHI Milleneum Institute, Open University, 2006; VDM Verlag, SaarbrückenGoogle Scholar
  92. Sanderson JC, Cromey CJ, Dring MJ, Kelly MS (2006) Distribution of nutrients for seaweed cultivation around salmon cages at farm sites in north-west Scotland. Aquaculture 278:60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schuenhoff A, Shpigel M, Lupatsch I, Ashkenazi A, Msuya FE, Neori A (2003) A semi-recirculating, integrated system for the culture of fish and seaweed. Aquaculture 221(1–4):167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shpigel M, Ragg NL, Lupatsch I, Neori A (1999) Protein content determines the nutritional value of the seaweed Ulva lactuca L for the abalone Haliotis tuberculata L. and H. discus hannai Ino. J Shellfish Res 18(1):227–233Google Scholar
  95. Smartfiber (2010) SeaCell® pure—SeaCell® active. http://www.smartfiber.de/index.php?option=com_content%26view=article%26id=9%26Itemid=30%26lang=en. Cited 16 Dec 2011
  96. Soto D, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Hishamunda N (2008) Building an Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. FAO/Universitat de les Illes Balears Expert Workshop, 7–11 May 2007, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceeding, No. 14. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0339e/i0339e.pdf. Cited 10 Oct 2011
  97. Stead SM, Laird L (2002) Handbook of salmon farming. Springer, London, pp 163–166Google Scholar
  98. Stickney RR (1998) Joining Forces With Industry—Open Ocean Aquaculture. Proceedings of the Third Annual International Conference, May 10-15, Corpus Christi, Texas. TAMU-SG-99-103, Corpus Christi, Texas Sea Grant College Program. p 152Google Scholar
  99. Tamura T (1966) Marine aquaculture. 2nd edition (Translated from Japanese). Springfield, VA, USAGoogle Scholar
  100. Troell M (2009) Integrated marine and brackishwater aquaculture in tropical regions: research, implementation and prospects. In D. Soto (ed) Integrated mariculture: a global review. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 529:47–131Google Scholar
  101. Troell M, Rönnbäck P, Halling C, Kautsky N, Buschmann A (1999) Ecological engineering in aquaculture: use of seaweeds for removing nutrients from intensive mariculture. J Appl Phycol 11:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Troell M, Halling C, Neori A, Buschmann AH, Chopin T, Yarish C, Kautsky N (2003) Integrated mariculture: asking the right questions. Aquaculture 226:69–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Troell M, Buck BH, Angel D, Chopin T (2012) Possibilities for the development of IMTA, combined with other activities, in offshore environments. In: Chopin T, Neori A, Robinson S, Troell M (eds) Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) or the turquoise revolution: a greener ecosystem approach to the blue revolution. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  104. Trono GC (1990) Technical resource papers—Regional workshop on the culture and utilization of seaweeds, vol. 2, 190 pp http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AB728E/AB728E00.htm. Cited 10 Oct 2011
  105. Tseng CK (1984) Phycological research in the development of the Chinese seaweed industry. Hydrobiologia 116(117):7–18Google Scholar
  106. Tseng CK (1987) Laminaria mariculture in China. In: Doty MS, Caddy JF, Santelices B (eds) Case Studies of seven Commercial Seaweed Resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 281, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 239–263Google Scholar
  107. Tseng CK (1989) Farming and ranching of the sea in China. Proc 2nd Gen Conf Org Third World Acad Sci. In: Faruqui AM, Hassan MH, (eds), The Future of Science in China and the Third World, World Scientific, pp 92–106Google Scholar
  108. Walker AB, Fournier HR, Neefus CD, Nardi GC, Berlinsky DL (2009) Partial replacement of fish meal with laver Porphyra spp. in diets for Atlantic cod. North Am J Aquacult 71:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelia M. Buchholz
    • 1
  • Gesche Krause
    • 2
  • Bela H. Buck
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)BremerhavenGermany
  2. 2.Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT)BremenGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Marine Resources (IMARE)BremerhavenGermany
  4. 4.Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences, Applied Marine BiologyBremerhavenGermany

Personalised recommendations