Advertisement

Cultural Diversity and Sustainability Metagovernance

  • Louis MeulemanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In the 20 years since the United Nations summit on sustainable development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the world has become more diverse, turbulent, fast and multi-polar. Tensions between old and new forms of politics, science and media, representing the emergence of what has been framed as the knowledge democracy, have brought about new challenges for sustainability governance. However, the existing governance frameworks seem to deny this social complexity and uncertainty. They also favour centralised negotiations and institutions, view governments as exclusive decision makers, and imply hegemony of Western economic, political and cultural principles. This is also reflected in the language of sustainability governance: it is centralist and is referring to monolithic concepts (the economy, the climate, the Earth System) rather than embracing diversity and complexity.

This chapter sheds light on the problematic relations between cultural diversity, sustainable development and governance. These three concepts share a normative character, which is always a good predictor of trouble if interaction takes place.

It is argued that the implementation deficit of sustainable development can be traced back to three problems: a neglect of the opportunities which cultural diversity offers, an implicit preference for central top-down political solutions, and an underestimation of the ‘wickedness’ of many sustainability challenges. It is concluded that sustainability governance should be more culturally sensitive, reflexive and dynamic. This requires institutions, instruments, processes, and actor involvement based on compatibility of values and traditions rather than on commonality or integration. It also calls for situationally effective combinations of ideas from hierarchical, network and market governance. This implies an approach beyond traditional forms of governance, towards a culturally sensitive metagovernance for sustainable development, beyond disciplinary scientific research, beyond states and other existing institutional borders, beyond existing ways to measure progress, beyond linear forms of innovation, and beyond cultural integration or assimilation, towards looking for compatibility. Governance for sustainable transformations requires what we have framed in this volume as transgovernance.

Keywords

Sustainable Development Corporate Governance Cultural Diversity Cultural Dimension Civil Society Organisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Maria Ivanova, Deborah Rogers, Harald Welzer and the TransGov project team members for their invaluable critical comments on earlier versions of this chapter, and Madelon Eelderink for her critical editorial comments.

Open Access. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

References

  1. Aagaard P (2009) Ideas and institutions in global governance – the case of microcredit. Paper presented a governance networks: democracy, policy innovation and global regulation, Ringsted, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdallah-Pretceille M (2006) Interculturalism as a paradigm for thinking about diversity. Intercult Educ 17(5):475–483Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai A (2002) Diversity and sustainable development. In UNESCO/UNEP (ed) Cultural diversity and biodiversity for sustainable development. UNESCO/UNEP, Nairobi pp 16–20Google Scholar
  4. Ayers J, Alam M, Huq S (2010) Global adaptation governance beyond 2012: developing-country perspectives. In: Biermann F, Pattberg P, Zelli F (eds) Global climate governance beyond 2012: architecture, agency and adaptation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 270–285Google Scholar
  5. Baker S (2009) In pursuit of sustainable development: a governance perspective. Paper presented at the 8th international conference of the european society for ecological economics (ESEE), Ljubljana, 29 June–2 July 2009 http://bit.ly/ulfG6s. Accessed 1 Dec 2011
  6. Barnett J, Campbell JL (2010) Climate change and small island states: power, knowledge and the south pacific. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Barth F (1969) Introduction. In: Barth F (ed) Ethnic groups and boundaries. Universitetsforlaget, OsloGoogle Scholar
  8. Barth F (1994) Enduring and emerging issues in the analysis of ethnicity. In: Vermeulen H, Govers C (eds) The anthropology of ethnicity. Beyond ‘ethnic groups and boundaries’. Het Spinhuis, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Basten F (2010) Researching publics. In: In ’t Veld RJ (ed) Knowledge democracy: consequences for science, politics and media. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 73–85Google Scholar
  10. Beck U, Bonss W, Lau C (2003) The theory of reflexive modernization: problematic, hypotheses and research programme. Theory Cult Soc 20(2):1–33Google Scholar
  11. Bennet JW (1990) Ecosystems, environmentalism, resource conservation, and anthropological research. In: Moran EF (ed) The ecosystem approach in anthropology: from concept to practice. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, pp 435–458Google Scholar
  12. Biermann F, Pattberg P, Zelli F (2010) Global climate governance beyond 2012: architecture, agency and adaptation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Bronfenbrenner M (1973) Equality and equity. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 409(9):9–23Google Scholar
  14. Cazorla-Clarisó X, Cañellas-Boltà S, Domingos-Abreu A (2008) Unity in diversity: perspective for long-term sustainability in Europe. In: EEAC Working Group SD (2008) sustaining Europe for a long way ahead: making long-term sustainable development policies work. Theme papers. EEAC, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  15. CBD (2004) The Akwé: Kon guidelines. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  16. Cocks M (2006) Biocultural diversity: moving beyond the realm of ‘indigenous’ and ‘local’ people. Human ecology (C_2006) doi: 10.1007/s10745-006-9013-5Google Scholar
  17. Demil B, Lecocq X (2006) Neither market nor hierarchy nor network: the emergence of bazaar governance. Org Studies 27(10):1447–1466Google Scholar
  18. De Schutter O (2010) The right to food. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, New York, 11 Aug 2010Google Scholar
  19. De Ruijter A (1995) Cultural pluralism and citizenship. Cult Dynam 7(2):215–231, Sage: LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixon J, Dogan R (2002) Hierarchies, networks and markets: responses to societal governance failure. Admin Theory Praxis 24(1):175–196Google Scholar
  21. Du Pisani J (2006) Sustainable development – historical roots of the concept. J Integr Environ Sci 3(2):83–96Google Scholar
  22. Dwyer PD (1996) The invention of nature. In: Ellen R, Fukui K (eds) Redefining nature: ecology, culture and domestication. Berg, Oxford, pp 157–186Google Scholar
  23. Fallaci O (1981) A man. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Ferro N (2009) The Chinese path to sustainable development, a critical analysis of reality and propaganda. SusDiv working paper 13.2009. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  25. Florida R (2005) The world is spiky. The Atlantic monthly. http://bit.ly/mCuLvp Accessed 27 Nov 2011
  26. Friedman Th (2006) The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. First updated and expanded edn. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Gambrel PA, Cianci R (2003) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: does it apply in a collectivist culture. J Appl Manag Entrepreneur 8(2):143–161Google Scholar
  28. Geva-May I (2002) From theory to practice: policy analysis, cultural bias and organizational arrangements. Public Manag Rev 4(4):581–591Google Scholar
  29. GIZ (2010) Diversity – driver for development. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH, EschbornGoogle Scholar
  30. Glasbergen P (2011) Mechanisms of private meta-governance: an analysis of global private governance for sustainable development. Int J Strateg Bus Allian 2(3):189–206Google Scholar
  31. Grindle M (2004) Good enough governance: poverty reduction and reform in developing countries. Govern Int J Pol Adm Inst 17(4):525–548Google Scholar
  32. Grint K (2010) The cuckoo clock syndrome: addicted to command, allergic to leadership. Eur Manag J 28(4):306–313Google Scholar
  33. Gould PR (1969) Man against his environment: a game theoretic framework. In: Vayda AP (ed) Environment and cultural behaviour: ecological studies in cultural anthropology. The Natural History Press, New York, pp 234–251Google Scholar
  34. Hall S (1991) The local and the global: globalization and ethnicity. In: King AD (ed) Culture, globalization and the world-system. Macmillan, London, pp 19–39Google Scholar
  35. Haque MS (1999) Sustainable development under neo-liberal regimes. Int Pol Sci Rev 20(2):197–218Google Scholar
  36. Hofstede G (1980) Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values. Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  37. Hofstede G (2001) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organisations across nations. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  38. Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ (2005) Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, Revised and expanded 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoogeveen H, Verkooijen P (2010) Transforming sustainable development diplomacy: lessons learned from global forest governance. Wageningen University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  40. Hulme M (2010) Problems with making and governing global kinds of knowledge. Glob Environ Chang 20:558–564Google Scholar
  41. In ’t Veld RJ (2010) Kennisdemocratie: opkomend stormtij. SDU, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  42. In ’t Veld RJ (ed) (2010b) Knowledge democracy: consequences for science, politics and media. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  43. In ’t Veld RJ (2011) Transgovernance: the quest for governance of sustainable development. IASS, PotsdamGoogle Scholar
  44. Jachtenfuchs M (1994) Theoretical reflections on the efficiency and democracy of European governance structures. In: Conference paper, European community studies association, 2nd World conference, Brussels, 5–6 May 1994Google Scholar
  45. Jessop B (1997) Capitalism and its future: remarks on regulation, government and governance. Rev Int Pol Econ 4(3):561–581Google Scholar
  46. Jungcurt S (2012) Knowledge management for international sustainable development governance in the context of the knowledge democracy. In: Meuleman L (ed) Transgovernance: advancing sustainability governance. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 332–354Google Scholar
  47. Kao G (2011) Grounding human rights in a pluralist world. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. Kickert WJM (2003) Beneath consensual corporatism: traditions of governance in The Netherlands. Public Adm 81(1):119–140Google Scholar
  49. Kolman L, Noorderhaven NG, Hofstede G, Dienes E (2002) Cross-cultural differences in Central Europe. J Manag Psychol 18(1):76–88Google Scholar
  50. Cornell S, Kalt JP (2005) Two approaches to economic development on American Indian reservations: one works, the other doesn’t. Harvard project on American Indian economic development and the native nations institute for leadership, management, and policy on behalf of the Arizona Board of RegentsGoogle Scholar
  51. Leeds A (1969) 1969 ethics report criticized. Newsletter of the American Anthropological Association 10(6). Reprinted in: Weaver T (ed) (1973) To see ourselves: anthropology and modern social issues. Scott, Foresman, Glenview, pp 49–50Google Scholar
  52. Leggewie C, Welzer H (2010) Another “great transformation”? Social and cultural consequences of climate change, J Ren Sust Energy 2(3): Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3384314
  53. Leggewie C, Welzer H (2009) Das Ende der Welt, wie wir sie kannten. Klima, Zukunft und die Chancen der Demokratie. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  54. Lévi-Strauss C (1958) Structural anthropology. The Penguin Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Levy D (2011) Private sector governance for a sustainable economy: a strategic approach. In: Najam A (ed) Beyond rio+20: governance for a green economy. Frederick S. Pardee Center, Boston University, Boston, pp 83–90Google Scholar
  56. Licht AN (2001) The mother of all path dependencies: toward a cross-cultural theory of corporate governance systems. Del J Corp Law 26(1):147–205Google Scholar
  57. Licht AN, Goldschmidt C, Schwartz SH (2007) Culture rules: the foundations of the rule of law and other norms of governance. J Comp Econ 35(4):659–688Google Scholar
  58. Lipsky M (2008) Revenues and access to public benefits. In: De Jong J, Rizvi G (eds) The state of access: success and failure of democracies to create equal opportunities. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, pp 137–147Google Scholar
  59. Majlergaard FD (2006) Release the power of cultural diversity in international business. Paper presented at the summit for the future on risk, Amsterdam, 3–5 May 2006Google Scholar
  60. McGinnis MD, Walker JM (2010) Foundations of the Ostrom workshop: institutional analysis, polycentricity, and self-governance of the commons. Public Choice 143(3, 4):293–301Google Scholar
  61. Meuleman L (2008) Public management and the metagovernance of hierarchies, networks and markets. The feasibility of designing and managing governance style combinations. Dissertation. Springer/Physica-Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  62. Meuleman L (2010) The cultural dimension of metagovernance: why governance doctrines may fail. Public Organ Rev 10(1):49–70Google Scholar
  63. Meuleman L (2010b) Metagovernance of climate policies: moving towards more variation. Paper presented at the Unitar/Yale conference. Strengthening institutions to address climate change and advance a green economy, Yale University, New Haven, 17–19 Sept 2010Google Scholar
  64. Moonaw W, Papa M (2012) Creating a mutual gains climate regime through universal clean energy services. Medford, Fletcher School, Tuft UniversityGoogle Scholar
  65. Moran EF (1990) Ecosystem ecology in biology and anthropology: a critical assessment. In: Moran EF (ed) The ecosystem approach in anthropology: from concept to practice. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, pp 3–40Google Scholar
  66. Niestroy I (2005) Sustaining sustainability. RMNO/EEAC/Lemma, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  67. Niestroy I (2007) Stimulating informed debate – sustainable development councils in eu member states. a compilation of tasks, capacities, and best practice. EEAC, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  68. Nurse K (2006) Culture as the fourth pillar of sustainable development. Commonwealth Secretariat Malborough House, Pall Mall, London, pp 32–48Google Scholar
  69. Ostrom E (1990) Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  70. Ostrom E (2010) Nested externalities and polycentric institutions: must we wait for global solutions to climate change before taking actions at other scales? Econ Theory published online 6 August 2010Google Scholar
  71. Ostrom V et al (1961) The organization of government in metropolitan areas: a theoretical inquiry. Amer Pol Sci Review 55:831–842Google Scholar
  72. Oswald Spring U (2010) Towards a sustainable peace in the Anthropocene. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners New Orleans, Feb 17, 2010. Online http://bit.ly/vZhfkY
  73. Parillo VN (1994) Diversity in America: a sociohistorical analysis. Sociol Forum 9(4):523–545Google Scholar
  74. Peters BG (2011) Steering, rowing, drifting, or sinking? Changing patterns of governance. Urban Res Pract 4(1):5–12Google Scholar
  75. Posey DA (1999) Cultural and spiritual values of biodiversity: a complementary contribution to the global biodiversity assessment. In: Posey DA (ed) Cultural and spiritual values of biodiversity. UNEP and Intermediate Technology Publications, London, U.K., pp 1–19Google Scholar
  76. Procee H (1991) Over de grenzen van culturen :voorbijuniversalisme en relativisme. Boom, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  77. Rittel HW, Webber MM (1973) Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Pol Sci 4:155–169Google Scholar
  78. Robertson R (1995) Glocalisation: time-space and homogeneity-heterogenity. In: Featherstone M, Lash S, Robertson R (eds) Global modernities. Sage, London, pp 25–44Google Scholar
  79. Robichau RW (2011) The mosaic of governance: creating a picture with definitions, theories, and debates. Pol Stud J 39(1):113–131Google Scholar
  80. Schmidt F (2012) Governing planetary boundaries – limiting or enabling conditions for transitions toward sustainability? In: Meuleman L (ed) Transgovernance: advancing sustainability governance. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 211–230Google Scholar
  81. Schvartzman Y (2009) Revising meta–governance: an analytical model for comparing the impact of state intervention on network structures in the Swedish and the Danish organic food industry. Paper presented at the conference. Governance networks: democracy, policy innovation and global regulation, Roskilde, 2–4 Dec 2009Google Scholar
  82. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2004) Akwé: Kon voluntary guidelines for the conduct of cultural, environmental and social impact assessment regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities. CBD Guidelines Series, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  83. Singer R (2008) Cultural diversity as a source of economic growth. Paper presented at Metropolitan Review of Toronto, OECD Mission, 30 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  84. Slaughter A (2009) America’sedge. Power in the networked century. Foreign Affairs 88(1):94–113Google Scholar
  85. Sørensen E (2006) Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance. Am Re Public Adm 36(1):98–114Google Scholar
  86. Sovacool BK (2011) Tailor renewable energies to local culture. Published 23 Feb 2011 on http://bit.ly/e6gXKw (Science and Development Network)
  87. Spangenberg JH (2005) Die Ökonomische Nachhaltigkeit der Wirtschaft: Theorien, Kriterien und Indikatoren. Edition Sigma, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  88. Stahl-Role S (2000) Transition on the spot: historicity, social structure, and institutional change. Atl Econ J 28(1):25–36Google Scholar
  89. Staur C (2006) Preface. In: Najam A, Papa M, Taiyab N (eds) Global environmental governance: a reform agenda. IISD, Winnipeg, pp iii–ivGoogle Scholar
  90. Stewart and Bennet (1991) American cultural patterns: a cross-cultural perspective. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, MaineGoogle Scholar
  91. Surowiecki J (2004) The wisdom of crowds: why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economics, society and nations. Anchor Books, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Teisman GR (2001) Ruimte mobiliseren voor coöperatief besturen, over management in netwerksamenlevingen. Inaugural speech, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  93. Telesetsky A (2010) Climate co-regulation: creating new international governance. Paper presented at the Unitar/Yale conference. Strengthening institutions to address climate change and advance a green economy, Yale University, New Haven, 17–19 Sept 2010Google Scholar
  94. Termeer C (1993) Dynamiek en inertie rondom mestbeleid: een studie naarveranderingsprocessen in het varkenshouderij-netwerk. Gravenhage, VugaGoogle Scholar
  95. Thaler R, Sunstein C (2008) Nudge. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  96. Thompson M, Wildavsky RE, Wildavsky A (1990) Cultural theory. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  97. Thompson G, Frances J, Levaĉić R, Mitchell J (eds) (1991) Markets, hierarchies and networks: the co-ordination of social life. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Thorelli HB (1986) Networks: between markets and hierarchies. Strateg Manage J 7(1):37–51Google Scholar
  99. UNESCO/UNEP (2002) Cultural diversity and biodiversity for sustainable development. Background documents to the UNESCO/UNEP, Johannesburg, Roundtable held on 3 Sept 2002Google Scholar
  100. VanDeveer SD (2011) Consuming environments: options and choices for 21st century citizens. In: Najam A (ed) Beyond Rio + 20: governance for a green economy. Frederick S. Pardee Center, Boston University, Boston, pp 43–52Google Scholar
  101. Van Huijstee MM, Francken M, Leroy P (2007) Partnerships for sustainable development: a review of current literature. J Integr Environ Sci 4(2):75–89Google Scholar
  102. Van Londen S, De Ruijter A (2011) Sustainable Diversity. In: Janssens M et al (eds) The sustainability of cultural diversity. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  103. Verweel P, De Ruijter A (2003) Managing cultural diversity. J Today 2:1–20Google Scholar
  104. Von Barloewen C, Zouari S (2010) Die Kultur-und Religionsgeschichtlichen Voraussetzungen: Zur Anthropologie der Globalisierung und der WeltzivilisationGoogle Scholar
  105. Wallace AFC (1970) Culture and personality, 2nd edn. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. WBGU (2011) World in transition – a social contract for sustainability. WBGU, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  107. Weiss T, Takur R (2010) Global governance and the UN: an unfinished journey. Indiana University Press, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  108. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Open Access. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PublicStrategyBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations