Desquamation: It Is Almost All About Proteases

Abstract

This chapter reviews the structure, function, and formation of the stratum corneum, how it is perturbed in a variety of conditions. In particular it discusses the role of proteases such as the kallikreins, plasmin, and urokinase and their inhibitors that play a role in desquamation of healthy and pathological skin. Faulty desquamation is the accumulation of corneocytes on the surface of the stratum corneum that leads ultimately to the cosmetic condition commonly termed as “dry skin.” This can be flaky skin as is normally seen on the body or rough skin observed on the face. Changes in the proteolytic balance of the skin can also result in inflammation, which leads to the typical clinical signs of redness, scaling, and itching. Reduced protease activity is known in soap-induced dry skin, but increased serine protease activity occurs in most, if not all, inflammatory dermatoses, ranging from genetic disorders, such as Netherton syndrome, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, to subclinical barrier abnormalities induced, e.g., surfactants, or by environmental influences. Serine proteases might represent key markers for underlying and sometimes nonobservable skin abnormalities. The biology of skin moisturization, of which hydration is only one benefit, is highly complex. The future of all new moisturizers lies in the fully understanding of the control and impairment of desquamation. Better understanding of the multistep proteolytic events and of the regulatory mechanisms involved in desquamation should enable the design of new treatments for the skin disorders associated with disturbance in the stratum corneum turnover. This will be the ultimate approach to corneocare.

Keywords

Serine Protease Stratum Corneum Atopic Dermatitis Patient Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Serine Protease Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DSM Nutritional Products Ltd.BaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.AVR Consulting Ltd.Northwich CheshireUK

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