Negotiation Strategy for Mobile Agent-Based e-Negotiation
Negotiation is a vital component of electronic trading. It is the key decision-making approach used to reach consensus between trading partners. Generally, trading partners implement various negotiation strategies in an attempt to maximize their utilities. As strategies have impact on the outcomes of negotiation, it is imperative to have efficient negotiation strategies that truly maximize clients’ utilities. In this paper, we propose a multi-attribute mobile agent-based negotiation strategy that maximizes client’s utility. The strategy focuses on one-to-many bilateral negotiation. It considers different factors that significantly affect the scheduling of various negotiation phases: offer collection, evaluation, negotiation, and bid award. The factors include offers expiry time, market search space, communication delays, processing queues, and transportation times. We reasoned about the correctness of the proposed negotiation strategy with respect to the existing negotiation strategies. The analysis showed that the proposed strategy enhances client’s utility, reduces negotiation time, and ensures minimum search space.
KeywordsNegotiation strategy e-Trade temporal constraints client’s utilities end of offer validity negotiation deadline
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Braun, P., Brzostowski, J., Kersten, G., Kim, J., Kowalczyk, R., Strecker, S., Vahidov, R.: E-Negotiation Systems and Software Agents: Methods, Models, and Applications. In: Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems: Foundation, Applications, and Challenges. Decision Engineering Series. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
- 3.Collins, J., Jamison, S., Gini, M., Mobasher, B.: Temporal Strategies in Mult-Agent Contracting Protocol. In: Proceedings of AAAI-1997 Workshop on Using AI in Electtronic Commerce, Virtual Organizations, Enterprise Knowledge Management to Re-enginer the Corporation, pp. 50–56 (1997)Google Scholar
- 7.Kebriaei, H., Majd, V.: A Simultaneous Multi-Attribute Soft-Bargaining Design for Bilateral Contracts. Journal of Expert Systems and Applications (2008)Google Scholar
- 8.Jaljouli, R., Abawajy, J.: Secure Mobile Agent-based E-negotiation for Online Trading. In: Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT 2007), Cairo, Egypt, pp. 610–615 (2007)Google Scholar
- 10.Levati, M.V., Maciejovsky, B.: Deadline Effects in Ultimatum Bargaining: an Experimental Study of Concession Sniping with Low or no Costs of Delay. Journal Costs of Delay: International Game Theory Review 7, 117–135 (2001)Google Scholar
- 11.Rahwan, I., Kowalczyk, R., Pham, H.: Intelligent Agents for Automated One-to-Many e-Commerce Negotiation. In: Proceedings of the 25th Australian Conference on Computer Science, pp. 197–204. Australian Computer Society Press (2002)Google Scholar
- 12.Selamat, A., Selamat, H.: Routing Algorithm of Mobile Agents for Query Retrieval Using Generic Algorithm. Malaysian Journal of Computer Science 17(2), 1–10 (2004)Google Scholar
- 14.Vogler, H., Spriestersbach, A., Moschgath, M.: Protecting Competitive Negotiation of Mobile Agents. In: IEEE Workshop on Future Trends of Distributed Computing Systems FTDCS (1999)Google Scholar
- 15.Zen, Z.: An Agent-Based Online Shopping System in E-Commerce. Journal of Computer and Information Science 2(4), 14–19 (2009)Google Scholar