Structure of the Colima Volcanic Complex: Origin and Behaviour of Active Fault Systems in the Edifice

  • Gianluca NoriniEmail author
  • Federico Agliardi
  • Giovanni Crosta
  • Gianluca Groppelli
  • Maria Clara Zuluaga
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)


The Colima Volcanic Complex (CVC) is one of the most prominent volcanic edifices within the Tran-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Its evolution has been characterized by complex interactions among regional tectonics, basement geometry and rheology, and successive volcanic edifices formed in several stages. In the first part of this review chapter, the state-of-the-art in the CVC structural and geological knowledge is summarized and discussed. Such knowledge is based on published structural, geological, geophysical, geodetic and petrological data and models, which allow identification of three main fault systems and definition of the general geometrical properties of the volcano plumbing system. The significance and supporting evidence for the Colima Rift faults, Tamazula Fault and volcano spreading structures, as well as their interactions with the CVC, are presented. In the second part of the paper, numerical models are performed to integrate previous knowledge and test the effects of different structural scenarios and different mechanical assumptions on the onset of gravitational spreading of the volcanic complex. Also, the state of activity of the three fault systems and their control on the magmatism and flank instability are discussed. Finally, the main findings on the CVC structural arrangement are summarized, and the most important requirements for improvement of our understanding of the interaction between regional tectonics, volcanic edifices and basement rheology are suggested. Future investigations are critical, as eruptions and sector failures represent potential high risks for more than 500,000 people.


Volcano-basement-tectonics interplay Gravitational spreading Active faults Numerical modelling 



We acknowledge Abel Cortés, Lucia Capra, Juan Carlos Gavilanes and Nick Varley for useful discussions on the geological and structural evolution of the CVC. This work was financed by a CONACyT grant to Gianluca Norini (CB-2009-132265). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy and SRE of Mexico provided travel assistance to Gianluca Groppelli and Gianluca Norini. Marina Manea and Vlad Manea kindly provided the GeoWall 3D Visualization tool at the CGEO-UNAM. We thank Sonia Calvari, Victor Hugo Garduño-Monroy and Charles Connor for their helpful reviews that improved the manuscript.


  1. Acocella, V., Neri, M., Norini, G.: An overview of experimental models to understand a complex volcanic instability: application to Mount Etna, Italy. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res. 251, 98–111 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan, J.F.: Sediment depth in the NCG from 3-D interpretation of gravity. Geofis. Int. 24, 21–30 (1985)Google Scholar
  3. Allan, J.F.: Geology of the Northern Colima and Zacoalco grabens, Southwest Mexico: Late Cenozoic rifting in the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 97, 473–485 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allan, J.F., Nelson, S.A., Luhr, J.F., Charmichael, I.S.E., Wopat, M., Wallace, P.J.: Pliocene-Holocene rifting and associated volcanism in Southwest Mexico: an exotic terrane in the making. In: Dauphin, J.P., Simoneit, R.R.T. (eds.) The Gulf and Peninsular Provinces of the Californias, AAPG Mem., vol. 47, pp. 425–445 (1991)Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, V., Stock, J., Ramirez Vázquez, C.A., Reyes-Davila, G.: Double-difference relocation of the Aftershocks of the Tecoman, Colima, Mexico Earthquake of 22 January 2003. Pure. appl. Geophys. 168, 1331–1338 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Apuani, T., Corazzato, C., Cancelli, A., Tibaldi, A.: Stability of a collapsing volcano (Stromboli, Italy): Limit equilibrium analysis and numerical modelling. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 144, 191–210 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atlas, Z.D., Dixon, J.E., Sen, G., Finny, M., Martin-Del Pozzo, A.L.: Melt inclusions from Volcan Popocatepetl and Volcan de Colima, Mexico: melt evolution due to vapor-saturated crystallization during ascent. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res. 153, 221–240 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandy, W.L., Mortera-Gutiérrez, C.A., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.: Gravity field of the southern Colima graben, Mexico. Geofis. Int. 32, 561–567 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. Bandy, W.L., Mortera-Gutiérrez, C.A., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Hilde, T.W.C.: The subducted Rivera-Cocos plate boundary: where is it, what is it, and what is its relationship to the Colima Rift? Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 3075–3078 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandy, W., Michaud, F., Bourgois, J., Calmus, T., Dyment, J., Mortera-Gutiérrez, C.A., Ortega-Ramírez, J., Pontois, B., Royer, J.Y., Sichlerg, B., Sosson, M., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Bigot-Cormier, F., Díaz-Molina, O., Hurtado-Artunduaga, A.D., Pardo-Castro, G., Trouillard-Perrot, C.: Subsidence and strike-slip tectonism of the upper continental slope off Manzanillo. Mexico Tectonophys. 398, 115–140 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrier, B., Bourgois, J., Michaud, F.: The active Jalisco triple junction rift system. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 310(II), 1513–1520 (1990)Google Scholar
  12. Bieniawski, Z.T.: Engineering Rock Mass Classifications: A Complete Manual for Engineers and Geologists in Mining, Civil and Petroleum Engineering, p. 251. Wiley, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  13. Borgia, A.: Dynamic basis of volcanic spreading. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 17791–17804 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borgia, A., van Wyk de Vries, B.: The volcano-tectonic evolution of Concepción, Nicaragua. Bull. Volcanol. 65, 248–266 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borgia, A., Delaney, P.T., Denlinger, R.P.: Spreading volcanoes. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28(1), 539–570 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourgois, J., Renard, V., Auboin, J., Bandy, W., Barrier, E., Calmus, T., Carfantan, J.C., Guerrero, J., Mammerickx, J., Mercier De Lepinay, B., Michaud, F., Sosson, M.: Active fragmentation of the North American plate: offshore boundary of the Jalisco block off Manzanillo. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 307(II), 1121–1130 (1988)Google Scholar
  17. Bourgois, J., Michaud, F.: Active fragmentation of the North America plate at the Mexican triple junction area off Manzanillo. Geo-Mar. Lett. 11, 59–65 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cabrera-Gutiérrez, R., Espíndola, J.M.: The 1998–1999 eruption of Volcán de Colima, Mexico: an application of Maeda´s viscoelastic model. Geofísca Internacional 49(2), 83–96 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. Capra, L., Macías, J.L.: The cohesive Naranjo debris-flow deposit (10 km3): a dam breakout flow derived from the Pleistocene debris avalanche deposit of Nevado de Colima Volcano (México). J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res 117, 213–235 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Capra, L., Gavilanes-Ruiz, J.C., Bonasia, R., Saucedo-Giron, R.: Re-assessing volcanic hazard zonation of Volcán de Colima. México. Nat. Hazards 76, 41–61 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Capra, L., Macías, J.L., Cortés, A., Dávila, N., Saucedo, R., Osorio-Ocampo, S., Arce, J.L., Gavilanes-Ruiz, J.C., Corona-Chávez, P., García-Sánchez, L., Sosa-Ceballos, G., Vázquez, R.: Preliminary report on the July 10–11, 2015 eruption at Volcán de Colima: Pyroclastic density currents with exceptional runouts and volume. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res 310, 39–49 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carmichael, I.S.E., Frey, H.M., Lange, R.A., Hall, C.M.: The pleistocene cinder cones surrounding Volcan Colima, Mexico re-visited: eruption ages and volumes, oxidation states, and sulfur content. Bull. Volcanol. 68, 407–419 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Centeno-García, E., Busby, C., Busby, M., Gehrels, G.: Evolution of the Guerrero composite terrane along the Mexican margin, from extensional fringing arc to contractional continental arc. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 123, 1776–1797 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cortés, A., Garduño, V.H., Navarro, C., Komorowski, J.C., Saucedo, R., Macías, J.L., Gavilanes, J.C.: Carta Geológica del Complejo Volcánico de Colima, Con Geología del Complejo Volcánico de Colima. Cartas Geológicas Y Mineras, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 10 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. Cortés, A., Garduño, V.H., Macías, J.L., Navarro-Ochoa, C., Komorowski, J.C., Saucedo, R., Gavilanes, J.C.: Geologic mapping of the Colima volcanic complex (Mexico) and implications for hazard assessment. In: Groppelli, G., Viereck-Goette, L. (eds.) Stratigraphy and Geology of volcanic areas, GSA Special Paper, vol. 464, pp. 249–264 (2010)Google Scholar
  26. Cortés, A., Macías, J.L., Capra, L., Garduño-Monroy, V.H.: Sector collapse of the SW flank of Volcán de Colima, México. The 3600 yr BP La Lumbre-Los Ganchos debris avalanche and associated debris flows. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res 197, 52–66 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Del Potro, R., Hürlimann, M.: Geotechnical classification and characterization of materials for stability analyses of large volcanic slopes. Eng. Geol. 98(1), 1–17 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Demant, A.: Interpretación geodinámica del volcanismo del Eje Neovolcánico Transmexicano. Revista Instituto de Geología 5, 217–222 (1981)Google Scholar
  29. DeMets, C., Stein, S.: Present-day kinematics of the Rivera plate and implications for tectonics in southwestern Mexico. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 21931–21948 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Domínguez, T., Zobin, V.M., Reyes-Davila, G.A.: The fracturing in volcanic edifice before an eruption: the June–July 1998 high-frequency earthquake swarm at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 105, 65–75 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Escudero, C.R., Bandy, W.L.: Ambient seismic noise tomography of the Colima Volcano Complex. Bull. Volcanol. 79, 13 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferrari, L.: Miocene shearing along the northern boundary of the Jalisco block and the opening of the southern Gulf of California. Geology 23, 751–754 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrari, L., Pasquarè, G., Venegas, S., Romero, F.: Geology of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt and adjacent Sierra Madre Occidental and Jalisco block. In: Delgado-Granados, H., Aguirre-Díaz, G., Stock, J. (eds.), Cenozoic Tectonics and Volcanism of Mexico: Geological Society of America Special Paper, 334, pp. 65–84 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferrari, L., Rosas-Elguera, J., Orozco-Esquivel, T., Carrasco-Nuñez, G., Norato-Cortez, T.: Digital Geologic Cartography of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Adjoining Areas. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (2005)
  35. Ferrari, L., Rosas-Elguera, J.: Late Miocene to Quaternary extension at the northern boundary of the Jalisco block, western Mexico: the Tepic–Zacoalco rift revised. In: Aguirre-Díaz, G., Delgado-Granados, H., Stock, J. (eds.), Cenozoic Tectonics and Volcanism of Mexico: Geological Society of America Special Paper, 334, pp. 42–64 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferrari, L., Garduño, V.H., Pasquarè, G., Tibaldi, A.: Volcanic and tectonic evolution of central Mexico: Oligocene to present. Geofis. Int. 33, 91–105 (1994)Google Scholar
  37. Ferrari, L., Orozco-Esquivel, T., Manea, V., Manea, M.: The dynamic history of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Mexico subduction zone. Tectonophysics 522–523, 122–149 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frey, H.M., Lange, R.A., Hall, C.M., Delgado-Granados, H., Carmichael, I.S.E.: A Pliocene ignimbrite flare-up along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift: evidence for the initial stages of rifting between the Jalisco Block (Mexico) and North America. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 119, 49–64 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garduño, V., Tibaldi, A.: Kinematic evolution of the continental active triple junction of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris 2, 135–142 (1991)Google Scholar
  40. Garduño-Monroy, V.H., Saucedo-Girón, R., Jiménez, Z., Gavilanes-Ruiz, J.C., Cortés-Cortés, A., Uribe-Cifuentes, R.M.: La Falla Tamazula, límite suroriental del Bloque Jalisco, y sus relaciones con el Complejo Volcánico de Colima, México. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 15(2), 132–144 (1998)Google Scholar
  41. Goodman, R.E., Taylor, R.L., Brekke, T.L.: A model for mechanics of jointed rock. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. 94, 637–659 (1968)Google Scholar
  42. Gudmundsson, A.: Rock Fractures in Geological Processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 592 pp., ISBN: 978-0-521-86392-6 (2011)Google Scholar
  43. Hammah, R.E., Yacoub, T., Corkum, B., Curran, J.H.: The practical modelling of discontinuous rock masses with Finite Element analysis. In: Proceedings of the 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium and 2nd U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, paper 08-180, American Rock Mechanics Association (2008)Google Scholar
  44. Hoek, E., Brown, E.T.: Practical estimates or rock mass strength. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 34, 1165–1186 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoek, E., Kaiser, P.K., Bawden, W.F.: Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock, p. 215. Balkema, Canberra (1995)Google Scholar
  46. Hürlimann, M., Ledesma, A., Martí, J.: Characterisation of a volcanic residual soil and its implications for large landslide phenomena: application to Tenerife, Canary Islands. Eng. Geol. 59, 115–132 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Komorowski, J.C., Navarro, C., Cortés, A., Saucedo, R., Gavilanes, J.C., Siebe, C., Espíndola, J.M., Rodríguez-Elizarrarás, S.: The Colima volcanic complex: part I: quaternary multiple debris-avalanche deposits, part II: Historical pyroclastic sequences (1913, 1991, 1994), Special Publication of the Organizing Committee of the IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior), Puerto Vallarta, México, General Assembly of the IAVCEI, Excursion Guidebook, p. 1–38 (1997)Google Scholar
  48. López-Loera, H., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Alva-Valdivia, J.L.M.: Magnetic characteristics of fracture zones and constraints on the subsurface structure of the Colima Volcanic Complex, western Mexico. Geosphere 6, 35–46 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. López-Loera, H., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Alva-Valdivia, L.: Estudio aeromagnético del complejo volcánico de Colima, occidente de México – implicaciones tectónicas y estructurales. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 28(2011), 349–370 (2011)Google Scholar
  50. Luhr, J.: Extensional tectonics and the diverse primitive volcanic rocks in the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. Can. Mineral. 35, 473–500 (1997)Google Scholar
  51. Luhr, J.F.: Petrology and geochemistry of the 1991 and 1998–1999 lava flows from Volcán de Colima, Mexico: implications for the end of the current eruptive cycle. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 117, 169–194 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luhr, J.F., Carmichael, I.S.E.: The Colima Volcanic complex, Mexico: part II. Late quaternary cinder cones. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 76, 127–147 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luhr, J.F., Carmichael, I.S.E.: Geology of Volcán de Colima, Universidad Nacional Autonma Mexico. Inst. Geol. Bol. 107, 1–101 (1990)Google Scholar
  54. Luhr, J.F., Prestegaard, K.L.: Caldera formation at Volcán de Colima, Mexico, by large Holocene volcanic debris avalanche. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 35, 335–348 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Luhr, J.F., Nelson, S.A., Allan, J.F., Carmichael, I.S.E.: Active rifting in southwestern Mexico: manifestations of an incipient eastward spreading-ridge jump. Geology 13, 54–57 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Macías, J.L., Saucedo, R., Gavilanes, J.C., Varley, N., Velasco, García S., Bursik, M.I., Vargas, Gutiérrez V., Cortés, A.: Flujos piroclásticos asociados a la actividad explosiva del Volcán de Colima y perspectivas futuras. GEOS 25(3), 340–351 (2006)Google Scholar
  57. Marinos, P., Hoek, E.: GSI: a geologically friendly tool for rock mass strength estimation. In: Proc. GeoEng2000 Conference, Melbourne, 1422–1442 (2000)Google Scholar
  58. Medina-Martínez, F., Espíndola, J.M., De la Fuente, M., Mena, M.: A gravity model of the Colima, México region. Geofis. Int. 35(4), 409–414 (1996)Google Scholar
  59. Michaud, F., Bourgois, J., Aubouin, J.: Fragmentation continentale en cours dans la zone d’affrontement entre le continent Nord‐Américain et la ride d’accrétion océanique de Pacifique est (Mexique). Oceanol. Acta. 10, 87–96 (1990)Google Scholar
  60. Michaud, F., Quintero-Legorreta, O., Barrier, E., Burgois, J.: La frontiére Nord du Bloc Jalisco (ouest Mexique): localisation et évolution de 13 Ma á l’actuel. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, II 312, 1359–1365 (1991)Google Scholar
  61. Moon, V., Bradshaw, J., Smith, R., de Lange, W.: Geotechnical characterization of stratocone crater wall sequences, White Island Volcano, New Zealand. Eng. Geol. 81, 146–178 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moore, G., Marone, C., Carmichael, I.S.E., Renne, P.: Basaltic volcanism and extension near the intersection of the Sierra Madre volcanic province and the Mexican volcanic belt. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 106, 383–394 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mooser, F.: Los volcanes de Colima. Univ. Nac. Mexico. Geol. Bol. 61, 49–71 (1961)Google Scholar
  64. Muller, H.O., Pollard, D.D.: The stress state near Spanish peaks, Colorado Determined From a Dike Pattern. Pageoph 115, 69–86 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Navarro, C., Komorowski, J.C., Cortés, A.: Depósitos de avalanchas de escombros en el Complejo Volcánico de Colima: evidencias geológicas y edades C14 para múltiples eventos. Nuevas preguntas a previas interpretaciones, un problema aún no resuelto. Universidad de Colima, Cuarta Reunión Internacional Volcán de Colima: A Decade Volcano Workshop, Colima, pp. 49–50, 24–28 Jan 1994Google Scholar
  66. Nieto-Obregón, J., Delgado-Argote, L., Damon, P.: Geochronologic, petrologic and structural data related to large morphologic features between the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Geofísica Internacional 24, 623–663 (1985)Google Scholar
  67. Nixon, G.T.: The relationship between Quaternary volcanism in central Mexico and the seismicity and structure of subducted oceanic lithosphere. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 93, 514–523 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Norini G., Acocella V.: Analogue modelling of flank instability at Mount Etna: understanding the driving factors. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 116, 1–21, B07206 (2011)Google Scholar
  69. Norini G., Capra L., Groppelli G., Agliardi F., Pola A., Cortés A.: Structural architecture of the Colima Volcanic Complex. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 115, 1–20, B12209 (2010)Google Scholar
  70. Norini, G., Lagmay, A.M.F.: Deformed symmetrical volcanoes. Geology 33, 605–608 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Norini, G., Capra, L., Groppelli, G., Lagmay, A.M.F.: Quaternary sector collapses of Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico) as consequence of regional tectonics and volcanic evolution. Geosphere 4, 854–871 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Núñez-Cornú, F.J., Sanchez-Mora, C.: Stress field estimations for Colima Volcano, Mexico based on Seismic data. Bull. Volc. 60, 568–580 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pacheco, J.F., Bandy, W., Reyes-Dávila, G.A., Núñez-Cornú, F.J., Ramírez-Vázquez, C.A., Barrón, J.R.: The Colima, Mexico earthquake (Mw 5.3) of March 7, 2000: seismic activity along the SCR. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93, 1458–1467 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pardo, M., Suárez, G.: Steep subduction geometry of the Rivera plate beneath the Jalisco block in western Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2391–2394 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pola, A., Crosta, G.B., Castellanza, R., Agliardi, F., Fusi, N., Barberini, V., Norini, G.: Relationships between porosity and physical mechanical properties in weathered volcanic rocks. In: Olalla, C., Hernández, L.E., Rodríquez-Losada, J.A., Perucho, A., Gonzales-Gallego, J. (eds.) Rock Mechanics and Geo-engineering in Volcanic Environments, p. 9780415584787. CRC Press/Balkema, ISBN (2010)Google Scholar
  76. Pola, A., Crosta, G., Fusi, N., Barberini, V., Norini, G.: Influence of alteration on physical properties of volcanic rocks. Tectonophysics 566–567, 67–86 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Quintero-Legorreta, O., Michaud, F., Bourgois, J., Barrier, E.: Evolución de la frontera septentrional del bloque Jalisco, México, desde hace 17 Ma. Revista Instituto de Geología 10, 111–117 (1992)Google Scholar
  78. Reid, M.E., Sisson, T.W., Brien, D.L.: Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape, Mount Rainier, Washington. Geology 29, 779–782 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reubi, O., Blundy, J.: Assimilation of plutonic roots, formation of high-K ‘exotic’ melt inclusions and genesis of andesitic magmas at Volcán De Colima, Mexico. J. Petrol. 49, 2221–2243 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Riahi, A., Hammah, R.E. Curran, R.E.: Limits of applicability of the finite element explicit joint model in the analysis of jointed rock problems. In: Proceedings of the 44th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics and the 5th U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, June 2010, paper ARMA 10–336 (2010)Google Scholar
  81. Robin, C., Mossand, P., Camus, G., Cantagrel, J.M., Gourgaud, A., Vincent, P.M.: Eruptive history of the Colima volcanic complex (Mexico). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 31, 99–113 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rodríguez-Elizarraras, S.R.: Estratigrafía y estructura del Volcán de Colima, México. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Geol. 12, 22–46 (1995)Google Scholar
  83. Rosas-Elguera, J., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.: Tectonic control on the volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Chapala graben, western Mexico. Int. Geol. Rev. 40, 350–362 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rosas-Elguera, J., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Maciel, R.: Geología del extremo oriental del Graben de Chapala; breve discusión sobre su edad: Zonas geotérmicas Ixtlan de Los Hervores-Los Negritos, México. Geotermia-Revista Mexicana de Geoenergía 5, 3–18 (1989)Google Scholar
  85. Rosas-Elguera, J., Ferrari, L., Garduño-Monroy, V.H., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.: Continental boundaries of the Jalisco block and their influence in the Pliocene-Quaternary kinematics of western Mexico. Geology 24, 921–924 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Roverato, M., Capra, L., Sulpizio, R., Norini, G.: Stratigraphic reconstruction of two debris avalanche deposits at Colima volcano (Mexico): insights into pre-failure conditions and climate influence. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 207, 33–46 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schaaf, P., Moran-Zenteno, D., Hernandez-Bernal, M., Solis-Pichardo, G., Tolson, G., Kohler, H.: Paleogene continental margin truncation in southwestern Mexico: geochronological evidence. Tectonics 14, 1339–1350 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Selvans, M., Stock, J., DeMets, C., Sanchez, O., Márquez-Azua, B.: Constraints on Jalisco Block motion and tectonics of the Guadalajara triple junction from 1998–2001 Campaign GPS Data. Pure. appl. Geophys. 168, 1435–1447 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Serpa, L., Smith, S., Katz, C., Skidmore, C., Sloan, R., Pavlis, T.: A geophysical investigation of the southern Jalisco block in the state of Colima, Mexico. Geofisica Internacional 31, 247–252 (1992)Google Scholar
  90. Stoopes, G.R., Sheridan, M.F.: Giant debris avalanches from the Colima Volcanic Complex, Mexico: implication for long-runout landslides (>100 km). Geology 20, 299–302 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Suárez, G., Garcia-Acosta, V., Gaulon, R.: Active crustal deformation in the Jalisco block, Mexico: evidence for a great historical earthquake in the 16th century. Tectonophysics 234, 117–127 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Suter, M., Quintero, O., Johnson, C.: Active faults and state of stress in the central part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 1: The Venta de Bravo fault. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11983–11994 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Suter, M., López-Martinez, M., Quintero-Legorreta, O., Carrillo Martinez, M.: Quaternary intra-arc extension in the Central TMVB. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 113, 693–703 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Rosas-Elguera, J.: Paleomagnetic study of the eastern sector of Chapala Lake and implications for the tectonics of west-central Mexico. Tectonophysics 239, 61–71 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Valencia, V.A., Ducea, M., Talavera-Mendoza, O., Gehrels, G., Ruiz, J., Shoemaker, S.: U-Pb geochronology of granitoids in the north-western boundary of the Xolapa terrane. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 26(1), 189–200 (2009)Google Scholar
  96. van Wyk de Vries, B., Borgia, A.: The role of basement in volcano deformation. In: McGuire, W.J., et al., Volcano Instability on the Earth and Other Planets. Geol. Soc. Sp. Pub. 110, 95–110 (1996)Google Scholar
  97. van Wyk de Vries, B., Matela, R.: Styles of volcano-induced deformation: numerical models of substratum flexure, spreading and extrusion. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 81, 1–18 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vidal, N., Merle, O.: Reactivation of basement faults beneath volcanoes: a new model for flank collapse. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 99, 9–26 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Voight, B., Elsworth, D.: Failure of volcano slopes. Geotechnique 47, 1–31 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Walter T.R., Acocella V., Neri M., Amelung F.: Feedback processes between magmatism and E‐flank movement at Mt. Etna (Italy) during the 2002–2003 eruption. J. Geophys. Res. 110, B10205 (2005)Google Scholar
  101. Watters, R.J., Zimbelman, D.R., Bowman, S.D., Crowley, J.K.: Rock mass strength assessment and significance to edifice stability, Mount Rainer and Mount Hood, Cascade Range Volcanoes, pure and applied. Geophysics 157, 957–976 (2000)Google Scholar
  102. Wooller, L., van Wyk, B., de Vries, J.B., Murray, H.Rymer, Meyer, S.: Volcano spreading controlled by dipping substrata. Geology 32, 573–576 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yang, T., Grand, S.P., Wilson, D., Guzmán-Speziale, M., Gómez-González, J.M., Domínguez-Reyes, T., Ni, J.: Seismic structure beneath the Rivera subduction zone from finite-frequency seismic tomography. J. Geophys. Res. 114, B01302 (2009)Google Scholar
  104. Zamora-Camacho, A., Espíndola, J.M., Reyes-Davila, G.: The 1997–1998 Activity of Volcán de Colima, Western Mexico: some aspects of the associated seismic activity. Pure Appl. Geophys. 164, 39–52 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zimbelman, D.R., Watters, R.J., Firth, I.R., Breit, G.N., Carrasco-Nunez, G.: Stratovolcano stability assessment methods and results from Citlaltépetl, Mexico. Bull. Volcanol. 66, 66–79 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zobin, V.M., Luhr, J.F., Taran, Y.A., Bretón, M., Cortés, A., De la Cruz-Reyna, S., Domínguez, T., Galindo, I., Gavilanes, J.C., Muñiz, J.J., Navarro, C., Ramírez, J.J., Reyes, G.A., Ursúa, M., Velasco, J., Alatorre, E., Santiago, H.: Overview of the 1997–2000 activity of Volcán de Colima, Mexico. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 117, 1–19 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zobin, V.M., Arambula-Mendoza, R., Breton, M., Reyes, G., Placencia, I., Navarro, C., Téllez, A., Campos, A., González, M., León, Z., Martínez, A., Ramírez, C.: Dynamics of the January 2013–June 2014 explosive–effusive episode in the eruption of Volcán de Colima, México: insights from seismic and video monitoring. Bull. Volcanol. 77, 31–44 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianluca Norini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Federico Agliardi
    • 2
  • Giovanni Crosta
    • 2
  • Gianluca Groppelli
    • 1
  • Maria Clara Zuluaga
    • 3
  1. 1.Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi AmbientaliConsiglio Nazionale delle RicercheRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly
  3. 3.Dirección de Recursos MineralesServicio Geológico ColombianoBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations