Advertisement

Late Pleistocene-Holocene Debris Avalanche Deposits from Volcán de Colima, Mexico

  • A. CortésEmail author
  • J.-C. Komorowski
  • J. L. Macías
  • L. Capra
  • P. W. Layer
Chapter
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)

Abstract

Volcán de Colima has experienced numerous partial edifice collapses with associated debris avalanche deposits, widely distributed toward the SW, S and SE sectors. According to new 40Ar/39Ar dates, activity began more than 97,000 years ago on the southern flank of Nevado de Colima with the formation of the so-called Paleofuego edifice. Several collapses occurred prior to a catastrophic edifice collapse event 7000 years ago, creating a horseshoe-shaped avalanche crater, 5 km wide, opened towards the south. After this last lateral collapse of Paleofuego, the currently active cone began to grow in the central part of the crater, which, during the Late Holocene, has experienced two lateral collapse events that generated debris avalanches. Based on new fieldwork and stratigraphic correlation of deposits supported by 14C dates, we present a description and approximate distribution of eight debris avalanche deposits generated by Volcán de Colima during the last 30,000 years. These debris avalanche deposits are exposed at 40 km to the S and 25 km in the SW and SE sectors of the volcano, and cover an area of 1200 km2 with an approximated volume of 86 km3. Field evidence indicates that at least some sector collapses were accompanied by magmatic activity. The regional tectonic setting that consists of the active N-S regional extension of the Colima graben, as well as E-W, and NE-SW structures, such as the Tamazula Fault, also played an important role in volcano instability. The contribution of a volcanic spreading component was also recently recognized. The emplacement of the most voluminous debris avalanches have obstructed the Armería and Tuxpan-Naranjo rivers producing temporary lakes, where thick lacustrine sediments were accumulated. The recurrence times of these sector collapses vary between 3000 and 6500 years during the Late Pleistocene and 1100–3400 years during the Holocene, with the youngest one having occurred ~2.5 ka BP. A future sector collapse of Volcán de Colima on the scale of past events could be catastrophic for up to about 350,000 inhabitants (including the city of Colima) that currently are located on top of ancient debris avalanche deposits.

Keywords

Colima Volcanic Complex Nevado de Colima Paleofuego Volcán de Colima Debris avalanche deposits 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Our gratitude and recognition for the support received from the following Institutions and people in the fulfilment of the current work: University of Colima, for the economic support by means of a grant; Chris Eastoe, for the 14C dating carried out at the University of Tucson, Arizona. Special thanks are given to M. Ursúa and J. Velasco of the Sistema Estatal de Protección Civil of Colima for their logistical support during field work. Thanks to L. Siebert, M. Roverato and B. Bernard for their thorough reviews of the manuscript and insightful comments which helped to make this a better contribution. We thank G. Cisneros for his technical aid to draft some of the figures.

References

  1. Begét, J.E., Kienle, J.: Cyclic formation of debris avalanches at Mount St. Augustine volcano, Alaska. Nature 356, 701–704 (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1038/356701a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellotti, F., Capra, L., Groppelli, G., Norini, G.: Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 158, 21–36 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belousov, A., Belousova, M., Voight, B.: Multiple edifice failures, debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. B. Volcanol. 61, 324–342 (1999)Google Scholar
  4. Borgia, A., Delaney, P.T., Den Linger, R.P:. Spreading volcanoes. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28(1), 539–570 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.28.1.539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borgia, A.: The dynamic basis of volcanic spreading. J. Geoph. Res. 99, 17,791–17,804 (1994).  https://doi.org/10.1029/94jb00578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borgia, A., Ferrari, L., Pasquaré, G.: Importance of gravitational spreading in the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mount Etna. Nature 357, 231–235 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borselli, L., Capra, L., Sarochi, D., De la Cruz-Reyna, S.: Flanck collapse scenarios at Volcán de Colima, Mexico: a relative instability analysis. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 208, 51–65 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, C.S., Cleary, P.W., Hopkins, M.: Large-scale landslide simulations: global deformation, velocities, and basal friction. J. Geoph. R 100, 8267–8283 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1029/94JB00937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, C.S.: Self-lubrication for long run out landslides. J. Geol. 97, 653–665 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Capra, L.: Volcanic natural dams: identification, stability and secondary effects. Nat. Hazards 43, 45–61 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Capra, L., Macías, J.L: The cohesive Naranjo debris-flow deposit (10 km3): a dam breakout flow derived from the Pleistocene debris-avalanche deposit of Nevado de Colima Volcano (Mexico). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 117, 213–235 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Capra, L., Macías, J.L., Scott, K., Abrams, M., Garduño, V.H.: Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico— behavior, and implications for hazard assessment. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 113, 81–110 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capra, L., Macías, J.L.: Pleistocene cohesive debris flows at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, central Mexico. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 102, 149–168 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrasco-Núñez, G., Gómez-Tuena, A.: Volcanogenic sedimentation around Citlaltépetl volcano (Pico de Orizaba) and suroundings, Veracruz, Mexico. In: Aguirre-Díaz, G.J., Aranda-Gómez, J.J., Carrasco-Núñez, G., Ferrari, L. (eds.) Magmatism and tectonics in the central and northwestern México—a selection of the 1997 IAVCEI general assembly excursions; México, D.F., UNAM, Instituto de Geol., Excursion, vol. 16, pp. 131–151 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. Carrasco-Núñez, G., Vallance, J.W., Rose, W.I.: A voluminous avalanche-induced lahar from Citlaltépetl volcano, México: implications for hazard assessment. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 59, 35–46 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carrasco-Núñez, G., Díaz-Castellón, R., Siebert, L., Hubbard, B., Sheridan, M.F., Rodríguez, S.R.: Multiple edifice-collapse events in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt: the role of slopping substrate and implications for hazard assessment. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 158, 151–176 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clement, B.M., Connor, C.B., Graper, G.: Paleomagnetic estimate of the emplacement temperature of the long-runnout Nevado de Colima volcanic debris avalanche deposit, México. Earth Plan. Res. Lett. 120, 499–510 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cortés, A.: Depósitos de Avalancha y Flujos de escombros originados hace 3 300 años por el Colapso del Sector Suroeste del Volcán de Colima. Ph.D. thesis, UNAM, México (2002)Google Scholar
  19. Cortés, A., Garduño, V.H., Navarro, C., Komorowski, J.-C., Saucedo, R., Macías, J.L., Gavilanes, R.J.C.: Carta Geológica del Complejo Volcánico de Colima con Geología del Complejo Volcánico de Colima. Cartas Geológicas y Mineras 10. Inst. Geol. 10, 1–37 (2005)Google Scholar
  20. Cortés, A., Macías, J.L., Capra, L., Garduño-Monroy, V.H.: Sector collapse of the SW flank of Volcán de Colima, México: the 3600 yr BP La Lumbre-Los Ganchos debris avalanche and associated debris flows. J. Volcanol. Res. 197, 52–66 (2010a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cortés, A., Garduño, V.H., Macías, J.L., Navarro-Ochoa, C., Komorowski, J.C., Saucedo, R., Gavilanes, J.C.: Geologica mapping of the Colima volcanic complex (Mexico) and implications for hazard assessment. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 464–12, 1–16 (2010b)Google Scholar
  22. Cortés, A.: Historia eruptiva del volcán Nevado de Colima y su evolución dentro del Complejo Volcánico de Colima: México D.F., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Tesis de Doctorado, p. 115 (inédita) (2015)Google Scholar
  23. Costa, J.E., Schuster, R.L.: The formation and failure of natural dams. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 100, 1054–1068 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crandell, D.R.: Postglacial lahars from Mount Rainier Volcano, Washington. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 677, 75 (1971)Google Scholar
  25. Francis, P.W., Self, S.: Collapsing Volcanoes. Scient Am. 256–6, 90–97 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Francis, P.W., Wells: Landsat thematic mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes. B. Volcanol. 50, 258–278 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. García-Palomo, A., Macías, J.L., Espíndola, J.M.: Strike-slip faults and K-alkaline volcanism at El Chichón volcano, Southeastern Mexico. J Volcanol Geoth. Res. 136, 247–268 (2004)Google Scholar
  28. Garcia-Palomo, A., Macías, J.L., Garduño, V.H.: Miocene to recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano región, Central Mexico. Tectonophysics 318, 281–302 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garduño, V.H., Saucedo, R., Jiménez, S., Gavilanes, J.C., Cortés, A., Uribe, R.M.: La Falla Tamazula, limite suroriental del bloque Jalisco, y sus relaciones con el Complejo Volcánico de Colima, México. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 15, 132–144 (1998)Google Scholar
  30. Glicken, H.: Sedimentary architecture of large volcanic-debris avalanches. In: Fisher, R.V., Smith, G.A. (eds.) Sedimentation in Volcanic Settings, SEPM (Soc Sed Geol) Spec Pub, 45, pp. 99–106 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glicken, H.: Rockslide Avalanche of May 18, 1980, Mount St, Helens Volcano, Washington, U.S. Geol Surv, Open File Report 96–677, p. 88 (1996)Google Scholar
  32. Höskuldsson, A., Robin, C.: Late Pleistocene to Holocene eruptive activity of Pico de Orizaba, Eastern Mexico. Bull. Volcanol. 55, 571–587 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática: Conteo Nacional de población y vivienda (2010). www.inegi.org.mx
  34. Komorowski, J.-C., Glicken, H., Sheridan, M.F.: Secondary electron imagery of microcracks and hackly fracture surfaces in sand-size clasts from the 1980 Mount St. Helens debris avalanche deposit: Implications for particle-particle interactions. Geology 19–3, 261–264 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Komorowski, J.-C., Navarro, C., Cortés, A., Siebe, C.: The repetitive collapsing nature of Colima volcanoes (México). In: Problems Related to the Distinction of Multiple Deposits and Interpretation of 14C Ages with Implications for Future Hazards. Universidad de Colima, Cuarta Reunión Internacional Volcán de Colima: A Decade Volcano Workshop, Colima, 24–28 Jan, pp. 12–18 (1994)Google Scholar
  36. Komorowski, J.C., Navarro, C., Cortés, A., Saucedo, R., Gavilanes, J.C., Siebe, C., Espíndola, J.M., Rodríguez-Elizarrarás, S.R.: The Colima Volcanic Complex, Field Guide # 3. IAVCEI, General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico (1997)Google Scholar
  37. Lagmay, A.M.F., Valdivia, W.: Regional stress influence on the opening direction of crater amphitheaters in Southeast Asian volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 158, 139–150 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lagmay, A.M.F., de Vries, B.V.W., Kerle, N., Pyle, D.M.: Volcano instability induced by strike‐slip faulting. Bull. Volcanol. 62, 331–346 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004450000103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Layer, P.W., García-Palomo, A., Jones, D., Macías, J.L., Arce, J.L., Mora, J.C.: El Chichón volcanic complex, Chiapas, México: stages of evolution based on field mapping and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Geofis. Int. 48, 33–54 (2009)Google Scholar
  40. Loera, L.H., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Valdivia, A.L.: Magnetic characteristics of fracture zones and constraints on the subsurface structure of Colima Volcanic Complex. Western Mexico. Geosphere 6(1), 35–46 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1130/GES00204.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. López, D.L., Williams, S.N.: Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes. Science 260, 1794–1796 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luhr, J.F., Navarro-Ochoa, C., Savov, I.P.: Tephrochronology, Petrology and geochemistry of Late-Holocene pyroclastic deposits from Volcán de Colima, México. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 197, 1–32 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Luhr, J.F., Carmichael, I.S.E.: Geology of Volcán de Colima Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Geología. Bol 107. México DF. 1–101 + plate (1990)Google Scholar
  44. Luhr, J.F., Prestegaard, K.L.: Caldera formation at Volcán Colima, México, by large Holocene volcanic debris avalanche. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 35, 335–348 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Luhr, J.F., Carmichael, I.S.E.: The Colima Volcanic Complex, Mexico; part III. Ash and scoria fall deposits from the upper slopes of Volcán Colima. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 80, 262–275 (1982a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luhr, J.F., Carmichael, I.S.E.: The Colima Volcanic Complex: I. post-caldera andesites from Volcán de Colima. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 71, 343–372 (1982b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Macías, J.L., García-Palomo, A., Arce, J.L., Seibe, C., Espíndola, J.M., Komorowski, J.-C., Scott, K.M.: Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlán Volcanoes, Central Mexico. In: Kowallis, B.J. (ed.) Proterozoic to Recent Stratigraphy, Tectonics, and Volcanology, Utah, Nevada, Southern Idaho and Central Mexico, pp. 493–528. BYU Geol, Stud (1997)Google Scholar
  48. Mayer, W., Sabol, M.A., Schuster, R.L.: Landslide-dammed lakes at Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Schuster, R.L. (ed.) Landslide dams: processes, risk and mitigation, pp. 21–41. Geotech Specl Publ, New York (1983)Google Scholar
  49. McGuire, W.J.: Volcano instability: a review of contemporary themes. In: McGuire, W.J., Jones, A.P., and Neuberg, J. (eds.) Volcano Instability on the Earth and Other Planets, vol. 110, pp. 1–23. Geol Soc Spec Publ, London (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mehl, K.W., Schmincke, H.U.: Structure and emplacement of the Pliocene Roque-Nublo debris avalanche deposit, Gran Canaria. Spain. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 94, 105–134 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Merle, O., Barde-Cabusson, S., Maury, R., Legendre, C., Guille, G., Blais, S.: Volcano core collapse triggered by regional faulting. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 158, 269–280 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Navarro, C., Komorowski, J.-C., Cortés, A.: Depósitos de avalanchas de escombros en el Complejo Volcánico de Colima: evidencias geológicas y edades C14 para múltiples eventos. In: Nuevas preguntas a previas interpretaciones, un problema aún no resuelto. Universidad de Colima, Cuarta Reunión Internacional Volcán de Colima: A Decade Volcano Workshop, Colima, 24–28 Jan 1994, pp. 49–50 (1994)Google Scholar
  53. Norini, G., Capra, L., Groppelli, G., Agliardi, F., Pola, A., Cortés, A. (2010). Structural architecture of the Colima Volcanic Complex. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 115, 1–20 (B12209) (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jb007649
  54. Pierson, T.C., Costa, J.E.: A rheologic classification of subaerial sediment-water flows. In: Costa, J.E., Wieczorek, G.F. (eds.) Debris Flows/Avalanches: Process, Recognition, and Mitigation (Geol. Soc. Amer. Rev. Eng. Geol.), pp. 1–12 (1987)Google Scholar
  55. Ponomareva, V.V., Pevzner, M.M., Melekestsev, I.V.: Large debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene eruptive history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka. Russia. Bull. Volcanol. 59(7), 490–505 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ponomareva, V.V., Melekestsev, I.V., Dirksen, O.V.: Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene-Holocene Volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 158, 117–138 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pulgarin, B., Macías, J.L., Cepeda, H., Capra, L.: Late Pleistocene deposits associated with a southern flank collapse of the Nevado del Huila Volcanic Complex (Colombia). Acta Vulcanol. 16(1) (in press) (2005)Google Scholar
  58. Reid, M., Sisson, T., Brien, D.: Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape Mount Rainier, Washington. Geology 29, 779–782 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Robin, C., Boudal, C.: A gigantic Bezymianny type event at the beginning of modern Volcán Popocatépetl. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 31, 115–130 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Robin, C., Mossand, P., Camus, G., Cantagrel, J.-M., Gourgaud, A., Vincent, P.: Eruptive history of the Colima Volcanic Complex. México. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 31, 99–113 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rodriguez-Elizarrarás, S.R., Siebe, C., Komorowski, J.C., Espíndola, J.M.: Consideraciones preliminares sobre riesgo en el Volcán de Colima, México. R Mex. Cs. Geol. 12(1), 47–51 (1995)Google Scholar
  62. Roverato, M., Capra, L., Sulpizio, R., Norini, G.: Stratigraphic reconstruction of two debris avalanche deposits at Colima Volcano (Mexico): Insights into pre-failure conditions and climate influence. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 207, 33–46 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schuster, R.L., Crandell, D.R.: Catastrophic debris avalanches from volcanoes. Proc. IV Int. Symp. Landslides Proc. 1, 567–572 (1984)Google Scholar
  64. Scott, K.M.: Lahars and flow transformations at Mount St. Helens Washington, U.S.A. In: International Symposium on Erosion, Debris Flow and Disaster Prevention, pp. 209–214. Tsukuba, Japan (1985)Google Scholar
  65. Siebe, C., Komorowski, J.-C., Sheridan, M.F.: The tectonically induced avalanche deposit at Jocotitlán volcano, Central México: unusual morphology, stratigraphical relations, and possible mode of emplacement. B. Volcanol. 54, 573–589 (1992a)Google Scholar
  66. Siebe, C., Komorowski, J.-C., Sheridan, M.F.: Morphology and emplacement collapse of an unusual debris avalanche deposit at Jocotitlán Volcano, Central Mexico. Bull. Volcanol. 54, 573–589 (1992a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Siebe, C., Abrams, M., Macías, J.L.: Derrumbes gigantes, depósitos de avalanchas de escombros y edad del actual cono del Volcán Popocatépetl. Volcán Popocatépetl. In: Gobernación, C.N.d.D.S.d. (ed.) Estudios realizados durante la crisis de, vol. 1994–1995, pp. 195–220 (1995b)Google Scholar
  68. Siebert, L.: Large volcanic debris avalanche: characteristics of source areas, deposits and associated eruptions. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 22, 163–197 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Siebert, L., Glicken, H., Ui, T.: Volcanic hazards from Bezymianny and Bandai type eruptions. Bull. Volcanol. 49, 435–459 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Siebert, L., Alvarado, G.E., Vallance, J.W., de Vries, B.V.W: Large-volume volcanic edifi ce failures in Central America and associated hazards. In: Rose, W.I., Bluth, G.J.S., Carr, M.J., Ewert, J., Patino, L.C., Vallance, J. (eds.) Volcanic Hazards in Central America. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 411, 1–26 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2412(01)
  71. Smith, G.A., Fritz, W.J.: Volcanic influences on terrestrial sedimentation. Geology 17, 375–376 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. SPP: Secretaría de Programación y Presupuesto. Carta hidrológica de aguas superficiales, escala 1:250,000. Hoja Colima (E 13–3) (1981)Google Scholar
  73. Stoopes, G.R., Sheridan, M.F.: Giant debris avalanches from the Colima Volcanic Complex, Mexico: implications for long-runout landslides (b100 km) and hazard assessment. Geology 20, 299–302 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tibaldi, A., Lagmay, A.M.F., Ponomareva, V.V.: Effects of basement structural and stratigraphic heritages on volcano behavior and implications for human activities (the UNESCO/IUGS/IGCP project 455). Episodes 28(3), 158–170 (2005)Google Scholar
  75. Ui, T., Takarada, S., Yoshimoto, M.: Debris avalanches. In: Sigurdsson, H., Houghton, B., McNutt, S.T., Rymer, H., Stix, J. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, pp. 617–626. Academic Press, San Diego (2000)Google Scholar
  76. Ui, T.: Volcanic dry avalanche deposits—identification and comparison with nonvolcanic debris stream deposits. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. V 18, 135–150 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ui, T., Yamamoto, H., Suzuki-Kamata, K.: Characterization of debris avalanche deposits in Japan. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. V 29, 231–243 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vallance, J.W., Siebert, L., Rose W.I., Jr., Girón J.R., Banks, N.G.: Edifice collapse and related hazards in Guatemala. J. Volcano Geoth. Res. 66, 337–355 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Van Wyk de Vries, B., Borgia, A.: The role of basement in volcano deformation. In McGuire, W.J., Jones, A.P., Neuberg, J. (eds.) Volcano Instability on the Earth and Other Planets. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 110, 95–110 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.110.01.07CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Van Wyk de Vries, B., Francis P.: Catastrophic collapse at stratovolcanoes induced by gradual volcano spreading. Nature 387, 387–390 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Van Wyk de Vries, B., Merle, O.: Extension induced by volcano loading in regional strike‐slip zones. Geology 26, 983–986 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026%3c0983:eibvli%3e2.3.co;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wooller, L., de Vries, B.V.W., Murray, J.B., Rhymer, H., Meyer, S.: Volcano spreading controlled by dipping substrata. Geology 32, 573–576 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1130/g20472
  83. Zernack, A.V., Cronin, S.J., Bebbington, M.S., Price, R.C., Smith, E.M., Stewart, R.B., Procter, J.N.: Catastrophic stratovolcano collapse: a model based on Mount Taranaki, New Zealand. Geology 40, 983–986 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cortés
    • 1
    Email author
  • J.-C. Komorowski
    • 2
  • J. L. Macías
    • 3
  • L. Capra
    • 4
  • P. W. Layer
    • 5
  1. 1.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanología, Universidad de ColimaColimaMexico
  2. 2.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRSParis Cedex 05France
  3. 3.Instituto de Geofísica, Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus-MoreliaMoreliaMexico
  4. 4.Centro de Geociencias, UNAMQuerétaroMexico
  5. 5.Geophysical Institute and College of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations