GreenWare: Greening Cloud-Scale Data Centers to Maximize the Use of Renewable Energy

  • Yanwei Zhang
  • Yefu Wang
  • Xiaorui Wang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7049)


To reduce the negative environmental implications (e.g., CO 2 emission and global warming) caused by the rapidly increasing energy consumption, many Internet service operators have started taking various initiatives to operate their cloud-scale data centers with renewable energy. Unfortunately, due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar panels, currently renewable energy is often more expensive than brown energy that is produced with conventional fossil-based fuel. As a result, utilizing renewable energy may impose a considerable pressure on the sometimes stringent operation budgets of Internet service operators. Therefore, two key questions faced by many cloud-service operators are 1) how to dynamically distribute service requests among data centers in different geographical locations, based on the local weather conditions, to maximize the use of renewable energy, and 2) how to do that within their allowed operation budgets.

In this paper, we propose GreenWare, a novel middleware system that conducts dynamic request dispatching to maximize the percentage of renewable energy used to power a network of distributed data centers, subject to the desired cost budget of the Internet service operator. Our solution first explicitly models the intermittent generation of renewable energy, e.g., wind power and solar power, with respect to varying weather conditions in the geographical location of each data center. We then formulate the core objective of GreenWare as a constrained optimization problem and propose an efficient request dispatching algorithm based on linear-fractional programming (LFP). We evaluate GreenWare with real-world weather, electricity price, and workload traces. Our experimental results show that GreenWare can significantly increase the use of renewable energy in cloud-scale data centers without violating the desired cost budget, despite the intermittent supplies of renewable energy in different locations and time-varying electricity prices and workloads.


Renewable Energy Data Center Wind Turbine Wind Power Wind Farm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanwei Zhang
    • 1
  • Yefu Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaorui Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of TennesseeKnoxville
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbus

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