Transfer Across the Air-Sea Interface

  • Christoph S. Garbe
  • Anna Rutgersson
  • Jacqueline Boutin
  • Gerrit de Leeuw
  • Bruno Delille
  • Christopher W. Fairall
  • Nicolas Gruber
  • Jeffrey Hare
  • David T. Ho
  • Martin T. Johnson
  • Philip D. Nightingale
  • Heidi Pettersson
  • Jacek Piskozub
  • Erik Sahlée
  • Wu-ting Tsai
  • Brian Ward
  • David K. Woolf
  • Christopher J. Zappa
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)


The efficiency of transfer of gases and particles across the air-sea interface is controlled by several physical, biological and chemical processes in the atmosphere and water which are described here (including waves, large- and small-scale turbulence, bubbles, sea spray, rain and surface films). For a deeper understanding of relevant transport mechanisms, several models have been developed, ranging from conceptual models to numerical models. Most frequently the transfer is described by various functional dependencies of the wind speed, but more detailed descriptions need additional information. The study of gas transfer mechanisms uses a variety of experimental methods ranging from laboratory studies to carbon budgets, mass balance methods, micrometeorological techniques and thermographic techniques. Different methods resolve the transfer at different scales of time and space; this is important to take into account when comparing different results. Air-sea transfer is relevant in a wide range of applications, for example, local and regional fluxes, global models, remote sensing and computations of global inventories. The sensitivity of global models to the description of transfer velocity is limited; it is however likely that the formulations are more important when the resolution increases and other processes in models are improved. For global flux estimates using inventories or remote sensing products the accuracy of the transfer formulation as well as the accuracy of the wind field is crucial.


Wind Speed Coloured Dissolve Organic Matter Transfer Velocity Dual Tracer Moderate Wind Speed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph S. Garbe
    • 1
  • Anna Rutgersson
    • 2
  • Jacqueline Boutin
    • 3
  • Gerrit de Leeuw
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Bruno Delille
    • 7
  • Christopher W. Fairall
    • 8
  • Nicolas Gruber
    • 9
  • Jeffrey Hare
    • 10
  • David T. Ho
    • 11
  • Martin T. Johnson
    • 12
    • 13
  • Philip D. Nightingale
    • 14
  • Heidi Pettersson
    • 15
    • 16
  • Jacek Piskozub
    • 17
  • Erik Sahlée
    • 2
  • Wu-ting Tsai
    • 18
  • Brian Ward
    • 19
  • David K. Woolf
    • 20
  • Christopher J. Zappa
    • 21
  1. 1.IWR, University of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.LOCEAN/CNRS/UPMC/IRDUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParis Cedex O5France
  4. 4.Climate Change UnitFinnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  6. 6.TNOUtrechtThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Chemical Oceanography UnitUniversity of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  8. 8.Physical Sciences DivisionNOAA Earth System Research LaboratoryBoulderUSA
  9. 9.Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant DynamicsETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  10. 10.Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR)University of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  11. 11.Department of OceanographyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  12. 12.Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  13. 13.Centre for environment, fisheries and aquaculture scienceLowestoftUK
  14. 14.Plymouth Marine LaboratoryPlymouthUK
  15. 15.Marine Research UnitFinnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  16. 16.HelsinkiFinland
  17. 17.Institute of OceanologyPolish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland
  18. 18.Department of Engineering Science and Ocean EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  19. 19.School of PhysicsNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  20. 20.International Centre for Island TechnologyHeriot-Watt University, The Old AcademyOrkneyUK
  21. 21.Lamont-Doherty Earth ObservatoryColumbia UniversityPalisadesUSA

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