Using Digraphs and a Second-Order Markovian Model for Rhythm Classification

  • Debora C. Correa
  • Luciano da Fontoura Costa
  • Jose H. Saito
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 116)


The constant increase of online music data has required reliable and faster tools for retrieval and classification of music content. In this scenario, music genres provide interesting descriptors, since they have been used for years to organize music collections and can summarize common patterns in music pieces. In this paper we extend a previous work by considering digraphs and a second-order Markov chain to model rhythmic patterns. Second-order transition probability matrices are obtained, reflecting the temporal sequence of rhythmic notation events. Additional features are also incorporated, complementing the creation of an effective framework for automatic classification of music genres. Feature extraction is performed by principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis techniques, whereas the Bayesian classifier is used for supervised classification. We compare the obtained results with those obtained by using a previous approach, where a first-order Markov chain had been used.Quantitative results obtained by the kappa coefficient corroborate the viability and superior performance of the proposed methodology. We also present a complex network of the studied music genres.


Linear Discriminant Analysis Feature Matrix Rhythmic Pattern Music Genre Music Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debora C. Correa
    • 1
  • Luciano da Fontoura Costa
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jose H. Saito
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Física de São CarlosUniversidade de São PauloSão CarlosBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de ComputaçãoUniversidade Federal de São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para Sistemas ComplexosCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisa FísicaRio de JaneiroBrazil

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