Introduction

  • Yi Cai
  • Ching-man Au Yeung
  • Ho-fung Leung

Abstract

Since the seminal Dartmouth Conference in 1956 [1], artificial intelligence (AI) has grown into an independent field of research, drawing ideas as well as techniques from various fields, including philosophy, mathematics, computer science and engineering, economics, neuroscience, psychology and linguistics

Keywords

Knowledge Representation Resource Description Framework Description Logic Individual Object Membership Grade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    McCarthy J, Minsky ML, Rochester N et al (1956) A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. http://wwwformal.stanford.edu/jmc/history/dartmouth/dartmouth.html. Accessed 12 March 2011.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Russell SJ, Norvig P (2002) Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Brachman RJ, Levesque HJ (2004) Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Gomez-Perez A, Corcho O, Fernandez-Lopez M (2004) Ontological Engineering: With Examples From the Areas of Knowledge Management, e-Commerce and the Semantic Web. Springer, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Berners-Lee T, Hendler J, Lassila O (2001) The SemanticWeb. Sci Am 284(5): 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Wooldridge M (2002) Introduction to Multi Agent Systems. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Smith B, Welty C (2001) Ontology-towards a New Synthesis. In: FOIS’ 01: Proceedings of the International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, ACM Press, New York, pp 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Neches R, Fikes RE, Finin T et al (1991) Enabling Technology for Knowledge Sharing. AI Mag 12(1): 36–56.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Gruber TR (1993) A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications. Knowledge Acquisition 5(2): 199–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Baader F, Calvanese D, McGuinness D et al (eds) (2003) The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation, and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.MATHGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Sattler U (2003) Description Logics for Ontologies. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Conceptual Structures (ICCS 2003).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Leuf B (2006) The Semantic Web: Crafting Infrastructure for Agency. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Lee J, Goodwin R (2005) The Semantic Webscape: A View of the Semantic Web. In: WWW’ 05: Special Interest Tracks and Posters of the 14th International Conference on World Wide Web, ACM Press, New York, pp 1154–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Horrocks I, van Harmelen F, Patel-Schneider PF (2001) DAML+OIL Reference Description. http://www.daml.org/2001/03/daml+oil-index.html. Accessed 1 May 2011.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Lassila O, Swick RR (1999) Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification. http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-rdf-syntax-19990222/. Accessed 18 July 2011.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    McGuinness DL, van Harmelen F (2004) OWL Web Ontology Language Overview. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/. Accessed 18 July 2011.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Passin TB (2004) Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Manning Publications, Shelter Island.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Straccia U (1998) A Fuzzy Description Logic. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the Tenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, pp 594–599.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Stoilos G, Stamou G, Tzouvaras V et al (2005) A Fuzzy Description Logic for Multimedia Knowledge Representation. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multimedia and the Semantic Web.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Stoilos G, Stamou G, Tzouvaras V et al (2005) Fuzzy Owl: Uncertainty and the Semantic Web. In: Proceedings of International Workshop of OWL: Experiences and Directions.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Ding Z, Peng Y (2004) A Probabilistic Extension to Ontology Language OWL. In: Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii Int Conf Sys Sci, p 10.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Jochen H (1994) Probabilistic Description Logics. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, pp 311–318.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Pan JZ, Stoilos G, Stamou G et al (2005) F-SWRL: A Fuzzy Extension of SWRL. J Data Semantic, Special Issue on Emergent Semantics.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Dubois D, Prade H, Rossazza J (1991) Vagueness, Typicality, and Uncertainty in Class Hierarchies. Int J Intell Syst 6: 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Osherson D, Smith E (1981) On the Adequacy of Prototype Theory as a Theory of Concepts. Cognition 9(1): 35–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Kamp H, Partee B (1995) Prototype Theory and Compositionality. Cognition 57: 129–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Rosch EH (1973) On the Internal Structure of Perceptual and Semantic Categories. In: More TE (ed) Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Rosch EH (1975) Cognitive Represerntations of Semantic Categories. J Exp Psychol 104: 192–233.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Smith EE, Medin DL (1981) Categories and Concepts. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Turner RM (1998) Context-mediated Behavior for Intelligent Agents. Int J Hum-Compu ST 48: 307–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Galotti KM (2004) Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory. Wadsworth, Belmont.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Roth EM, Shoben EJ (1983) The Effect of Context on the Structure of Categories. Cognitive Psychol 15: 346–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Grossi D, Dignum F, Meyer JJC (2004) Contextual Taxonomies. In: Proceedings of Fifth InternationanalWorkshop on Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Grossi D, Dignum F, Meyer JJC (2005) Context in Categorization. In: Workshop on Context Representation and Reasoning.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Au Yeung CM, Leung HF (2006) Ontology with Likeliness and Typicality of Objects in Concepts. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling. Springer, 4215: 98–111.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press, Beijing and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Cai
    • 1
  • Ching-man Au Yeung
    • 2
  • Ho-fung Leung
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Software EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research InstituteHong KongChina
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations