Dreaming Your Fear Away: A Computational Model for Fear Extinction Learning during Dreaming

  • Jan Treur
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7064)

Abstract

In this paper a computational model is presented that models how dreaming is used to learn fear extinction. The approach addresses dreaming as internal simulation incorporating memory elements in the form of sensory representations and their associated fear. During dream episodes regulation of fear takes place, which is strengthened by Hebbian learning. The model was evaluated by a number of simulation experiments for different scenarios.

Keywords

dreaming fear extinction learning computational model 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baars, B.J.: In the theater of consciousness: the workspace of the mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bi, G., Poo, M.: Synaptic modification by correlated activity: Hebb’s postulate revisited. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24, 139–166 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker, W., Fuchs, A.F.: Prediction in the Oculomotor System: Smooth Pursuit During Transient Disappearance of a Visual Target. Exp. Brain Research 57, 562–575 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Damasio, A.R.: Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. Papermac, London (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Damasio, A.R.: The Feeling of What Happens. Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt Brace, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Damasio, A.R.: Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Vintage Books, London (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Damasio, A.R.: Self comes to mind: constructing the conscious brain. Pantheon Books, NY (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davidson, R.J.: Anxiety and affective style: role of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Biol. Psychiatry 51, 68–80 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franzen, P.L., Buysse, D.J., Dahl, R.E., Thompson, W., Siegle, G.J.: Sleep deprivation alters pupillary reactivity to emotional stimuli in healthy young adults. Biol. Psychol. 80, 300–305 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gerstner, W., Kistler, W.M.: Mathematical formulations of Hebbian learning. Biol. Cybern. 87, 404–415 (2002)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldin, P.R., McRae, K., Ramel, W., Gross, J.J.: The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biol. Psychiatry 63, 577–586 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldman, A.I.: Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading. Oxford Univ. Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gross, J.J.: Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. J. of Personality and Social Psych. 74, 224–237 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gross, J.J.: Handbook of Emotion Regulation. Guilford Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gujar, N., McDonald, S.A., Nishida, M., Walker, M.P.: A Role for REM Sleep in Recalibrating the Sensitivity of the Human Brain to Specific Emotions. Cerebral Cortex 21, 115–123 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hebb, D.: The Organisation of Behavior. Wiley (1949)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hesslow, G.: Will neuroscience explain consciousness? J. Theoret. Biol. 171, 29–39 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hesslow, G.: Conscious thought as simulation of behaviour and perception. Trends Cogn. Sci. 6, 242–247 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hobson, J.A.: REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10, 803–814 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levin, R., Nielsen, T.A.: Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: A review and neurocognitive model. Psychological Bulletin 133, 482–528 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levin, R., Nielsen, T.A.: Nightmares, bad dreams, and emotion dysregulation. A review and new neurocognitive model of dreaming. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 18, 84–88 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nielsen, T.A., Stenstrom, P.: What are the memory sources of dreaming? Nature 437, 1286–1289 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Revonsuo, A.: The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23, 877–901 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salzman, C.D., Fusi, S.: Emotion, Cognition, and Mental State Representation in Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 33, 173–202 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sotres-Bayon, F., Bush, D.E., LeDoux, J.E.: Emotional perseveration: an update on prefrontal-amygdala interactions in fear extinction. Learn. Mem. 11, 525–535 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Treur, J.: A Computational Agent Model Using Internal Simulation to Generate Emotional Dream Episodes. In: Samsonovich, A.V., et al. (eds.) Proc. of the Second Intern. Conf. on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, BICA 2011. IOS Press (in press, 2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valli, K., Revonsuo, A., Palkas, O., Ismail, K.H., Ali, K.J., Punamaki, R.L.: The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: evidence from dreams of traumatized children. Conscious Cogn. 14, 188–218 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Valli, K., Revonsuo, A.: The threat simulation theory in light of recent empirical evidence: a review. Am. J. Psychol. 122, 17–38 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Walker, M.P.: The role of sleep in cognition and emotion. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 1156, 168–197 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Walker, M.P., van der Helm, E.: Overnight therapy? The role of sleep in emotional brain processing. Psychol. Bull. 135, 731–748 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoo, S.S., Gujar, N., Hu, P., Jolesz, F.A., Walker, M.P.: The human emotional brain without sleep – a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Curr. Biol. 17, R877–R878 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Treur
    • 1
  1. 1.Agent Systems Research GroupVU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations