A Formal Methodology for Compositional Cross-Layer Optimization

  • Minyoung Kim
  • Mark-Oliver Stehr
  • Carolyn Talcott
  • Nikil Dutt
  • Nalini Venkatasubramanian
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7000)


The xTune framework employs iterative tuning using light-weight formal verification at runtime with feedback for dynamic adaptation of mobile real-time embedded systems. To enable trade-off analysis across multiple layers of abstraction and predict the possible property violations as the system evolves dynamically over time, an executable formal specification is developed for each layer of the system under consideration. The formal specification is then analyzed using statistical analysis, to determine the impact of various policies for achieving a variety of end-to-end properties in a quantifiable manner. The integration of formal analysis with dynamic behavior from system execution results in a feedback loop that enables model refinement and further optimization of policies and parameters. Finally, we propose a composition method for coordinated interaction of optimizers at different abstraction layers. The core idea of our approach is that each participating optimizer can restrict its own parameters and exchange refined parameters with its associated layers. We also introduce sample application domains for future research directions.


Mobile Node Solution Quality Sequential Probability Ratio Test Mobile Multimedia Dynamic Voltage Scaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Agha, G., Meseguer, J., Sen, K.: PMaude: Rewrite-based specification language for probabilistic object systems. In: 3rd Workshop on Quantitative Aspects of Programming Languages, QAPL 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Clavel, M., Durán, F., Eker, S., Lincoln, P., Martí-Oliet, N., Meseguer, J., Talcott, C.: All About Maude - A High-Performance Logical Framework. How to Specify, Program and Verify Systems in Rewriting Logic. LNCS, vol. 4350. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hua, S., Qu, G., Bhattacharyya, S.S.: Energy reduction techniques for multimedia applications with tolerance to deadline misses. In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference on Design Automation (DAC 2003), pp. 131–136 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim, M., Dutt, N., Venkatasubramanian, N.: Policy construction and validation for energy minimization in cross layered systems: A formal method approach. In: IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2006) Work-in-Progress Session (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim, M., Massaguer, D., Dutt, N., Mehrotra, S., Ren, M.-O.S.S., Talcott, C., Venkatasubramanian, N.: A semantic framework for reconfiguration of instrumented cyber physical spaces. In: Workshop on Event-based Semantics (WEBS 2008), CPS Week (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim, M., Stehr, M.-O., Talcott, C.: A distributed logic for networked cyber-physical systems. In: IPM Int. Conf. Fundamentals of Software Engineering, FSEN 2011 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim, M., Stehr, M.-O., Kim, J., Ha, S.: An application framework for loosely-coupled networked cyber-physical systems. In: 8th IEEE/IFIP Int. Conf. Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, M.-Y., Stehr, M.-O., Talcott, C., Dutt, N., Venkatasubramanian, N.: Combining Formal Verification with Observed System Execution Behavior to Tune System Parameters. In: Raskin, J.-F., Thiagarajan, P.S. (eds.) FORMATS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4763, pp. 257–273. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, M.-Y., Stehr, M.-O., Talcott, C., Dutt, N., Venkatasubramanian, N.: A Probabilistic Formal Analysis Approach to Cross Layer Optimization in Distributed Embedded Systems. In: Bonsangue, M.M., Johnsen, E.B. (eds.) FMOODS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4468, pp. 285–300. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim, M., Stehr, M.-O., Talcott, C., Dutt, N., Venkatasubramanian, N.: Constraint refinement for online verifiable cross-layer system adaptation. In: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exposition, DATE 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C.D., Vecchi, M.P.: Optimization by simulated annealing. Science (4598), 671–680 (1983)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mohapatra, S., Cornea, R., Oh, H., Lee, K., Kim, M., Dutt, N.D., Gupta, R., Nicolau, A., Shukla, S.K., Venkatasubramanian, N.: A cross-layer approach for power-performance optimization in distributed mobile systems. In: IEEE 19th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohapatra, S., Dutt, N., Nicolau, A., Venkatasubramanian, N.: Dynamo: A cross-layer framework for end-to-end QoS and energy optimization in mobile handheld devices. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 25(4), 722–737 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    IFIP 10.4 Working Group on Dependable Computing and Fault Tolerance,
  16. 16.
    Sen, K., Viswanathan, M., Agha, G.: Statistical Model Checking of Black-Box Probabilistic Systems. In: Alur, R., Peled, D.A. (eds.) CAV 2004. LNCS, vol. 3114, pp. 202–215. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stehr, M.-O., Kim, M., Talcott, C.: Toward Distributed Declarative Control of Networked Cyber-Physical Systems. In: Yu, Z., Liscano, R., Chen, G., Zhang, D., Zhou, X. (eds.) UIC 2010. LNCS, vol. 6406, pp. 397–413. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stehr, M.-O., Talcott, C., Rushby, J., Lincoln, P., Kim, M., Cheung, S., Poggio, A.: Fractionated software for networked cyber-physical systems: Research directions and long-term vision. In: Agha, G., Danvy, O., Meseguer, J. (eds.) Festschrift to the Honor of Carolyn Talcott. LNCS, vol. 7000, pp. 111–144. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    xTune Framework,
  20. 20.
    Younes, H.: Ymer: A statistical model checker. In: Etessami, K., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) CAV 2005. LNCS, vol. 3576, pp. 429–433. Springer, Heidelberg (2005),
  21. 21.
    Yuan, W., Nahrstedt, K.: Energy-efficient soft real-time CPU scheduling for mobile multimedia systems. In: 9th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP 2003), pp. 149–163. ACM Press (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yuan, W., Nahrstedt, K., Adve, S.V., Jones, D.L., Kravets, R.H.: Grace-1: Cross-layer adaptation for multimedia quality and battery energy. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 5(7), 799–815 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minyoung Kim
    • 1
  • Mark-Oliver Stehr
    • 1
  • Carolyn Talcott
    • 1
  • Nikil Dutt
    • 2
  • Nalini Venkatasubramanian
    • 2
  1. 1.SRI InternationalUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations