Differencing Labeled Transition Systems

  • Zhenchang Xing
  • Jun Sun
  • Yang Liu
  • Jin Song Dong
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6991)

Abstract

Concurrent programs often use Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) as their operational semantic models, which provide the basis for automatic system analysis and verification. System behaviors (generated from the operational semantics) evolve as programs evolve for fixing bugs or implementing new user requirements. Even when a program remains unchanged, its LTS models explored by a model checker or analyzer may be different due to the application of different exploration methods. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach (named SpecDiff) to computing the differences between two LTSs, representing the evolving behaviors of a concurrent program. SpecDiff considers LTSs as Typed Attributed Graphs (TAGs), in which states and transitions are encoded in finite dimensional vector spaces. It then computes a maximum common subgraph of two TAGs, which represents an optimal matching of states and transitions between two evolving LTSs of the concurrent program. SpecDiff has been implemented in our home grown model checker framework PAT. Our evaluation demonstrates that SpecDiff can assist in debugging system faults, understanding the impacts of state reduction techniques, and revealing system change patterns.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Agesen, O., Detlefs, D., Garthwaite, A., Knippel, R., Ramakrishna, Y., White, D.: An Efficient Meta-Lock for Implementing Ubiquitous Synchronization. In: OOPSLA 1999, pp. 207–222 (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agrawal, H., Horgan, J., London, S., Wong, W.: Fault localization using execution slices and dataflow tests. In: ISSRE 1995, pp. 143–151 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brookes, S.D., Roscoe, A.W., Walker, D.J.: An Operational Semantics for CSP. Technical report (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Girard, A., Pappas, G.: Approximation metrics for discrete and continuous systems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 52(5), 782–798 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Herlihy, M., Wing, J.M.: Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects. ACM Trans. on Prog. Lang. and Syst (TOPLAS) 12(3), 463–492 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Horwitz, S.: Identifying the semantic and textual differences between two versions of a program. SIGPLAN Not. 25(6), 234–245 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jackson, D.: Software Abstractions. MIT Press, Cambridge (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jackson, D., Ladd, D.: Semantic diff: A tool for summarizing the effects of modifications. In: ICSM 1994, pp. 243–252 (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jacky, J., Veanes, M., Campbell, C., Schulte, W.: Model-Based Software Testing and Analysis with C#. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2007)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jones, J., Harrold, M.: Empirical evaluation of the tarantula automatic fault-localization technique. In: ASE 2005, pp. 273–282 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Könighofer, R., Hofferek, G., Bloem, R.: Debugging formal specifications using simple counterstrategies. In: FMCAD 2009, pp. 152–159 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, Y., Sun, J., Dong, J.S.: An Analyzer for Extended Compositional Process Algebras. In: ICSE 2008 Companion, pp. 919–920 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Masri, W.: Fault localization based on information flow coverage. Technical report, AUB-CMPS-07-10 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayer, W., Stumptner, M.: Model-based debugging – state of the art and future challenges. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 174(4), 61–82 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Milner, R.: Communication and Concurrency. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1989)MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Milner, R.: Operational and algebraic semantics of concurrent processes, pp. 1201–1242 (1990)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nejati, S., Sabetzadeh, M., Chechik, M., Easterbrook, S., Zave, P.: Matching and merging of statecharts specifications. In: ICSE 2007, pp. 54–64 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sokolsky, S.K.O., Lee, I.: Simulation-based graph similarity. In: Hermanns, H. (ed.) TACAS 2006. LNCS, vol. 3920, pp. 426–440. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Person, S., Dwyer, M.B., Elbaum, S., Pǎsǎreanu, C.S.: Differential symbolic execution. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) FSE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5086, pp. 226–237. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pnueli, A., Xu, J., Zuck, L.: Liveness with (0,1, ∞ )-counter abstraction. In: Brinksma, E., Larsen, K.G. (eds.) CAV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2404, pp. 107–122. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qi, D., Roychouhury, A., Liang, Z., Vaswani, K.: Darwin: an approach for debugging evolving programs. In: Dunkelman, O. (ed.) FSE 2009. LNCS, vol. 5665, pp. 33–42. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Siegel, S.F., Mironova, A., Avrunin, G.S., Clarke, L.A.: Using model checking with symbolic execution to verify parallel numerical programs. In: ISSTA 2006, pp. 157–168 (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sun, J., Liu, Y., Dong, J.S., Chen, C.Q.: Integrating Specification and Programs for System Modeling and Verification. In: TASE 2009, pp. 127–135 (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sun, J., Liu, Y., Dong, J.S., Pang, J.: PAT: Towards Flexible Verification under Fairness. In: Bouajjani, A., Maler, O. (eds.) CAV 2009. LNCS, vol. 5643, pp. 709–714. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Treiber, R.K.: Systems Programming: Coping with Parallelism. Technical Report RJ 5118, IBM Almaden Research Center (1986)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valmari, A.: Stubborn Set Methods for Process Algebras. In: PMIV 1996, pp. 213–231 (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xing, Z.: Genericdiff: A general framework for model comparison. Technical report, National University of Singpore (2011), http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~pat/publications/gendiff.pdf
  29. 29.
    Yang, W.: Identifying syntactic differences between two programs. Softw. Pract. Exper. 21(7), 739–755 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhenchang Xing
    • 1
  • Jun Sun
    • 2
  • Yang Liu
    • 1
  • Jin Song Dong
    • 1
  1. 1.National University of SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Singapore University of Technology and DesignSingapore

Personalised recommendations