Application of Bacterial Pigments as Colorant

  • Wan Azlina AhmadEmail author
  • Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad
  • Zainul Akmar Zakaria
  • Nur Zulaikha Yusof
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


In the last decade, investigations about possible use of natural dyes in textile dyeing processes have been carried out by various research groups. Various kind of natural dyes (e.g. Hibiscus mutabilis, Quercus infectoria and Cassia tora L.) were used to dye different types of materials (e.g. cotton, jute, wool, silk and leather) normally in the presence of mordant (e.g. alum, copper sulfate and ferrous sulphate). Studies on the dyeing techniques were attempted using both conventional (alkaline, acidic or neutral baths) and non-conventional methods (ultrasonic, microwave, sonicator and supercritical carbon dioxide fluids). The degree of dyeing was normally compared based on the colorfastness properties which can be defined as the property of a pigment or dye, or materials containing the coloring material, to retain its original hue, without fading, running or changing when wetted, washed, cleaned or stored under normal conditions when exposed to light, heat or other influences. Essentially, this means that different dyes will have different fastness on different materials.


Pigment Bacteria Colorfastness Prodigiosin Lightfastness Violacein Application 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan Azlina Ahmad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad
    • 2
  • Zainul Akmar Zakaria
    • 3
  • Nur Zulaikha Yusof
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudai JohorMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Bioproduct DevelopmentUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudai JohorMalaysia

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