Advertisement

Countering Counter-Forensics: The Case of JPEG Compression

  • ShiYue Lai
  • Rainer Böhme
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6958)

Abstract

This paper summarizes several iterations in the cat-and-mouse game between digital image forensics and counter-forensics related to an image’s JPEG compression history. Building on the counter-forensics algorithm by Stamm et al. [1], we point out a vulnerability in this scheme when a maximum likelihood estimator has no solution. We construct a targeted detector against it, and present an improved scheme which uses imputation to deal with cases that lack an estimate. While this scheme is secure against our targeted detector, it is detectable by a further improved detector, which borrows from steganalysis and uses a calibrated feature. All claims are backed with experimental results from 2 × 800 never-compressed never-resampled grayscale images.

Keywords

Image Forensics Counter-Forensics JPEG Compression 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Stamm, M., Tjoa, S., Lin, W., Ray Liu, K.J.R.: Anti-forensics of JPEG compression. In: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2010), pp. 1694–1697. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kirchner, M., Böhme, R.: Tamper hiding: Defeating image forensics. In: Furon, T., Cayre, F., Doërr, G., Bas, P. (eds.) IH 2007. LNCS, vol. 4567, pp. 326–341. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goljan, M., Fridrich, J., Chen, M.: Sensor noise camera identification: Countering counter-forensics. In: Memon, N.D., Dittmann, J., Alattar, A.M., Delp, E.J. (eds.) Proceedings of SPIE Media Forensics and Security II, vol. 7541, p. 75410S. SPIE, Bellingham (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., Hogea, D.: Steganalysis of JPEG images: Breaking the F5 algorithm. In: Petitcolas, F.A.P. (ed.) IH 2002. LNCS, vol. 2578, pp. 310–323. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fridrich, J.: Feature-based steganalysis for JPEG images and its implications for future design of steganographic schemes. In: Fridrich, J. (ed.) IH 2004. LNCS, vol. 3200, pp. 67–81. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kodovsky, J., Fridrich, J.: Calibration revisited. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security, pp. 63–73. ACM Press, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fan, Z., Queiroz, R.: Identication of bitmap compression history: JPEG detection and quantizer estimation. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 12(2), 230–235 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farid, H.: Digital image ballistics from JPEG quantization. Tech.Rep. TR2006-583 (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    He, J., Lin, Z., Wang, L., Tang, X.: Detecting doctored JPEG images via DCT coefficient analysis. In: Leonardis, A., Bischof, H., Pinz, A. (eds.) ECCV 2006. LNCS, vol. 3953, pp. 423–435. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pevny, T., Fridrich, J.: Detection of double-compression in JPEG images for applications in steganography. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 3, 247–258 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stamm, M., Tjoa, S., Lin, W., Ray Liu, K.J.R.: Undetectable image tampering through JPEG compression anti-forensics. In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Valenzise, G., Nobile, V., Tagliasacchi, M., Tubaro, S.: Countering JPEG anti-forensics. In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP (to appear, 2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ker, A.D., Böhme, R.: Revisiting weighted stego-image steganalysis. In: Delp, E.J., Wong, P.W., Dittmann, J., Memon, N.D. (eds.) Proc. of SPIE Security, Forensics, Steganography and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X, San Jose, CA, vol. 6819 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lam, E.Y., Goodman, J.: A mathematical analysis of the DCT coefficient distributions for images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 9, 1661–1665 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kirchner, M., Böhme, R.: Hiding traces of resampling in digital images. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 3, 582–592 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barni, M., Cancelli, G., Esposito, A.: Forensics aided steganalysis of heterogeneous images. In: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2010), pp. 1690–1693. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pevny, T., Fridrich, J.: Merging Markov and DCT features for multi-class JPEG steganalysis. In: Proceeding SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents (IX), pp. 313–314 (January 2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • ShiYue Lai
    • 1
  • Rainer Böhme
    • 1
  1. 1.European Research Center for Information System (ERCIS)University of MünsterMünsterGermany

Personalised recommendations