‘Acted Reality’ in Electronic Patient Record Research: A Bridge between Laboratory and Ethnographic Studies

  • Lesley Axelrod
  • Geraldine Fitzpatrick
  • Flis Henwood
  • Liz Thackray
  • Becky Simpson
  • Amanda Nicholson
  • Helen Smith
  • Greta Rait
  • Jackie Cassell
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6947)

Abstract

This paper describes and reflects on the development and use of ‘acted reality’ scenarios to study variability in General Practitioners’ (GPs’) record keeping practices, particularly their use of free text and coded entries. With actors playing the part of patients and in control of certain elements of the interaction, the acted reality approach creates a bridge between the controlled but often unrealistic laboratory setting and the arguably more ‘realistic’ but often messy world observed in traditional ethnographic studies. The skills and techniques of actors were compelling, helping to develop and sustain interaction, whilst keeping the process on track and providing rich data. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of working with actors in this specific context and argues that the acted reality approach might be applied elsewhere in HCI research, especially in contexts where there are multiple individuals involved, but where the behaviour of one user is of special interest.

Keywords

acted reality electronic patient records HCI virtual patient drama 

References

  1. 1.
    Ackroyd, J.: Applied Theatre: Problems and Possibilities. Applied Theatre Researcher 1 (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berg, M., Goorman, E.: The contextual nature of medical information. Int. J. Medical Informatics 56, 51–60 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brandt, E., Grunnet, C.: Evoking the future: drama and props in user centered design. In: Proc. Participatory Design Conference, CPSR (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bosse, H., Nickel, M., Huwendiek, S., Jünger, J., Schultz, J., Nikendei, C.: Peer role play and standardized patients in medical training. BMC Medical Education 10, 27 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carroll, J.M.: Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human-Computer Interactions. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cooper, A.: The Inmates are Running the Asylum. In: SAMS (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crabtree, A., Rodden, T.: Hybrid ecologies: understanding interaction in emerging digital-physical environments. Pers. Ubiq. Computing 12, 481–493 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fitzpatrick, G.: Integrated Care and the Working Record. Health Informatics J. 10, 251–252 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greatbatch, D., Heath, C., Campion, P., Luff, P.: How do desk-top computers affect the doctor-patient interaction? Family Practice 12(1), 32–36 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Light, A., Weaver, L., Healey, P., Simpson, G.: Adventures in the Not Quite Yet: using performance techniques to raise design awareness about digital networks. In: Proc. DRS, Sheffield (July 2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Medbiquitous virtual patient working group website, http://www.medbiq.org/working_groups/virtual_patient/index.html (accessed April 7, 2011)
  12. 12.
    Newell, A., Morgan, M, Gregor, P. Carmichael, A.: Theatre as an intermediary between users and CHI designers. In: CHI 2006, pp. 111–117 (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newman, W., Button, G., Cairns, P.: Pauses in doctor-patient conversation during computer use: The design significance of their durations and accompanying topic changes. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud. 68(6), 398–409 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nicholson, A., Tate, A.R., Koeling, R., Cassell, J.: What does validation of cases in electronic record databases mean? The potential contribution of free text. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety 20(3), 321–324 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oulasvirta, A., Kurvinen, E., Kankainen, T.: Understanding contexts by being there: case studies in bodystorming. Pers. Ubiq. Computing 7(2), 125–134 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    RAE Privacy And Prejudice EPR views of young people (2010), http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Privacy_and_Prejudice_EPR_views.pdf (accessed April 7, 2011)
  17. 17.
    Salazar, V.L.: Reducing the effort in the creation of new patients using the virtual simulated patient framework. In: WMED IEEE Workshop, pp. 764–769 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seland, G.: System designer assessments of role play as a design method: a qualitative study. In: Proc. NordiCHI 2006, vol. 189, pp. 222–231. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stott, D.: Learning the Second Way. BMJ 335, 1122–1123 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Strasberg, L.: A Dream of Passion, http://www.leestrasberg.com/ (accessed April 7, 2011)
  21. 21.
    Tate, A.R., Alexander, M.G.R., Murray-Thomas, T., Anderson, S.R., Cassell, J.A.: Determining the date of diagnosis – is it a simple matter? The impact of different approaches to dating diagnosis on estimates of delayed care for ovarian cancer in UK primary care. BMC Medical Research Methodology 9(42) (2009); BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2010-000025Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ticka, P., Vouri, R., Kaipainen, M.: Narrative Logic of enactive cinema. Digital Creativity 17(4), 205–212 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ünalan, P., Uzuner, A., Çifçili, S., Akman, M., Hancıoğlu, S., Thulesius, H.: Using theatre in education in a traditional lecture oriented medical curriculum. BMC Med. Educ. 9(73) (2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2803161/ (accessed April 7, 2011)

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lesley Axelrod
    • 1
  • Geraldine Fitzpatrick
    • 2
  • Flis Henwood
    • 3
  • Liz Thackray
    • 1
  • Becky Simpson
    • 6
  • Amanda Nicholson
    • 4
  • Helen Smith
    • 4
  • Greta Rait
    • 5
  • Jackie Cassell
    • 4
  1. 1.Human Centred Technology LabUni of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.HCI GroupTechnical Uni of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.School of Applied Social ScienceUni of BrightonFalmerUK
  4. 4.Brighton and Sussex Medical SchoolUK
  5. 5.Dept. Primary Care and Population HealthUCL Medical SchoolLondonUK
  6. 6.PLAYOUTUK

Personalised recommendations