Advertisement

Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking on a Large High-Resolution Display with Multiple Input Devices

  • Katherine Vogt
  • Lauren Bradel
  • Christopher Andrews
  • Chris North
  • Alex Endert
  • Duke Hutchings
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6947)

Abstract

This study adapts existing tools (Jigsaw and a text editor) to support multiple input devices, which were then used in a co-located collaborative intelligence analysis study conducted on a large, high-resolution display. Exploring the sensemaking process and user roles in pairs of analysts, the two-hour study used a fictional data set composed of 50 short textual documents that contained a terrorist plot and subject pairs who had experience working together. The large display facilitated the paired sensemaking process, allowing teams to spatially arrange information and conduct individual work as needed. We discuss how the space and the tools affected the approach to the analysis, how the teams collaborated, and the user roles that developed. Using these findings, we suggest design guidelines for future co-located collaborative tools.

Keywords

Visual analytics sensemaking co-located CSCW large high-resolution display 

References

  1. 1.
    Thomas, J., Cook, K.: Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heer, J.: Design considerations for collaborative visual analytics. Information Visualization 7, 49–62 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heuer, R.J., Pherson, R.H.: Structured Analytic Techniques for Intelligence Analysis. CQ Press, Washington, DC (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chin, G.: Exploring the analytical processes of intelligence analysts, p. 11 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrews, C., Endert, A., North, C.: Space to think: large high-resolution displays for sensemaking. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, Atlanta (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Waltz, E.: The Knowledge-Based Intelligence Organization. In: Knowledge Management in the Intelligence Enterprise. Artech House, Boston (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stasko, J.: Jigsaw: supporting investigative analysis through interactive visualization. Information Visualization 7, 118–132 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gutwin, C., Greenberg, S.: Design for individuals, design for groups: tradeoffs between power and workspace awareness. In: Proceedings of the 1998 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. ACM, Seattle (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stefik, M., Foster, G., Bobrow, D.G., Kahn, K., Lanning, S., Suchman, L.: Beyond the chalkboard: computer support for collaboration and problem solving in meetings. Communications of the ACM 30, 32–47 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stewart, J.E.: Single display groupware. In: CHI 1997 Extended Abstracts On Human Factors In Computing Systems: Looking to The Future, pp. 71–72. ACM, Atlanta (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elrod, S., Bruce, R., Gold, R., Goldberg, D., Halasz, F., Janssen, W., Lee, D., McCall, K., Pederson, E., Pier, K., Tang, J., Welch, B.: Liveboard: a large interactive display supporting group meetings, presentations, and remote collaboration. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 599–607. ACM, Monterey (1992)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pedersen, E.R., McCall, K., Moran, T.P., Halasz, F.G.: Tivoli: an electronic whiteboard for informal workgroup meetings. In: Proceedings of the INTERACT 1993 and CHI 1993 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 391–398. ACM, Amsterdam (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rekimoto, J.: A multiple device approach for supporting whiteboard-based interactions. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 344–351. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Los Angeles, California (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wallace, J., Scott, S., Stutz, T., Enns, T., Inkpen, K.: Investigating teamwork and taskwork in single- and multi-display groupware systems. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 13, 569–581 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stewart, J., Raybourn, E.M., Bederson, B., Druin, A.: When two hands are better than one: enhancing collaboration using single display groupware. In: CHI 1998 Conference Summary on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 287–288. ACM, Los Angeles (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stewart, J., Bederson, B.B., Druin, A.: Single display groupware: a model for co-present collaboration. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: the CHI is the Limit, pp. 286–293. ACM, Pittsburgh (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Birnholtz, J.P., Grossman, T., Mak, C., Balakrishnan, R.: An exploratory study of input configuration and group process in a negotiation task using a large display. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, San Jose (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robinson, A.: Collaborative Synthesis of Visual Analytic Results. IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology, 67–74 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rogers, Y., Lim, Y.-k., Hazlewood, W.R., Marshall, P.: Equal Opportunities: Do Shareable Interfaces Promote More Group Participation Than Single User Displays? Human–Computer Interaction 24, 79–116 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Green, T.M., Ribarsky, W., Fisher, B.: Building and applying a human cognition model for visual analytics. Information Visualization 8, 1–13 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pirolli, P., Card, S.: The Sensemaking Process and Leverage Points for Analyst Technology as Identified Through Cognitive Task Analysis. In: International Conference on Intelligence Analysis (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Plaisant, C., Grinstein, G., Scholtz, J., Whiting, M., O’Connell, T., Laskowski, S., Chien, L., Tat, A., Wright, W., Gorg, C., Liu, Z., Parekh, N., Singhal, K., Stasko, J.: Evaluating Visual Analytics at the 2007 VAST Symposium Contest. In: Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 28, pp. 12–21. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Paul, S.A., Reddy, M.C.: Understanding together: sensemaking in collaborative information seeking. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 321–330. ACM, Savannah (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paul, S.A., Morris, M.R.: CoSense: enhancing sensemaking for collaborative web search. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1771–1780. ACM, Boston (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Morris, M.R., Lombardo, J., Wigdor, D.: WeSearch: supporting collaborative search and sensemaking on a tabletop display. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 401–410. ACM, Savannah (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pioch, N.J., Everett, J.O.: POLESTAR: collaborative knowledge management and sensemaking tools for intelligence analysts. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 513–521. ACM, Arlington (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tobiasz, M., Isenberg, P., Carpendale, S.: Lark: Coordinating Co-located Collaboration with Information Visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 15, 1065–1072 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Isenberg, P., Fisher, D.: Collaborative Brushing and Linking for Co-located Visual Analytics of Document Collections. Computer Graphics Forum 28, 1031–1038 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Isenberg, P., Fisher, D., Morris, M.R., Inkpen, K., Czerwinski, M.: An exploratory study of co-located collaborative visual analytics around a tabletop display. In: 2010 IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology, VAST, pp. 179–186 (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ball, R., North, C., Bowman, D.A.: Move to improve: promoting physical navigation to increase user performance with large displays. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 191–200. ACM, San Jose (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wallace, G., Li, K.: Virtually shared displays and user input devices. In: 2007 Proceedings of the USENIX Annual Technical Conference, pp. 1–6. USENIX Association, Santa Clara (2007)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
    Kang, Y.-a., Gorg, C., Stasko, J.: Evaluating visual analytics systems for investigative analysis: Deriving design principles from a case study. In: IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology, Atlantic City, NJ, pp. 139–146 (2009)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Pickens, J.: Algorithmic mediation for collaborative exploratory search, p. 315 (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wright, W., Schroh, D., Proulx, P., Skaburskis, A., Cort, B.: The Sandbox for analysis: concepts and methods. In: CHI 2006: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 801–810. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Patrick, G.S., Baudisch, P., Robertson, G., Czerwinski, M., Meyers, B., Robbins, D., Andrews, D.: GroupBar: The TaskBar Evolved. In: OZCHI, pp. 34–43 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Vogt
    • 1
  • Lauren Bradel
    • 2
  • Christopher Andrews
    • 2
  • Chris North
    • 2
  • Alex Endert
    • 2
  • Duke Hutchings
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computing SciencesElon UniversityElonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations