Linked Rules: Principles for Rule Reuse on the Web

  • Ankesh Khandelwal
  • Ian Jacobi
  • Lalana Kagal
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6902)


Ontologies are information models which provide vocabulary terms or terminologies and associated meanings to allow the modeling of a domain. They are shared conceptualizations; this has never been more true, because in recent years they have been developed by community efforts, often including experts from academia as well as industry. Those efforts have been complemented by the standardization of formats and languages, such as RDF, OWL, and SPARQL, for representing and (re)using ontologies and data on the (Semantic) Web. Rules, on the other hand, are (seldom) used for knowledge representation (i.e. to define the semantics or integrity constraints). Rules are also used for other intelligent reasoning tasks such as for defining business logic and policies. With the prevalence of shared information models, it is possible and may be necessary to share and reuse rules. Furthermore, with the advent of the Rule Interchange Format (RIF), rules can be shared across many rule systems. We propose a set of basic principles and features by which rules can be represented and shared over the web so that they may be effectively reused and demonstrate several methods of rule reuse. Finally, we discuss how some of these features work in practice in the N3-based AIR web rules language.


linked rules online rules web rules rule reuse AIR 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brickley, D., Guha, R.: RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema. W3C Recommendation (February 10, 2004),
  2. 2.
    W3C: OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview. W3C Recommendation (October 27, 2009),
  3. 3.
    Boley, H., Paschke, A., Shafiq, O.: RuleML 1.0: The Overarching Specification of Web Rules. In: Dean, M., Hall, J., Rotolo, A., Tabet, S. (eds.) RuleML 2010. LNCS, vol. 6403, pp. 162–178. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kifer, M., Boley, H.: RIF Overview. W3C Working Group Note (June 22, 2010),
  5. 5.
    Berners-Lee, T.: Linked Data-Design Issues (2006),
  6. 6.
    Khandelwal, A., Bao, J., Kagal, L., Jacobi, I., Ding, L., Hendler, J.: Analyzing the AIR Language: A Semantic Web (Production) Rule Language. In: Hitzler, P., Lukasiewicz, T. (eds.) RR 2010. LNCS, vol. 6333, pp. 58–72. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waterman, K.K., Wang, S.: Prototyping Fusion Center Information Sharing; Implementing Policy Reasoning Over Cross-Jurisdictional Data Transactions Occurring in a Decentralized Environment. In: IEEE Conference on Homeland Security Technologies, IEEE HST (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    REWERSE: R2ML - The REWERSE I1 Rule Markup Language,
  9. 9.
    Boley, H., Kifer, M.: RIF Framework for Logic Dialects. W3C Recommendation (June 22, 2010),
  10. 10.
    Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., Masinter, L.: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. Internet Draft Standard RFC 2396 (August 1998)
  11. 11.
    Polleres, A., Feier, C., Harth, A.: Rules with Contextually Scoped Negation. In: Sure, Y., Domingue, J. (eds.) ESWC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4011, pp. 332–347. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berners-Lee, T., Connolly, D., Kagal, L., Scharf, Y., Hendler, J.: N3Logic: A Logical Framework For the World Wide Web. J. of Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Antoniou, G., Damasio, C.V., Grosof, B., Horrocks, I., Kifer, M., Maluszynski, J., Patel-Schneider, P.F.: Combining Rules and Ontologies: A survey. Technical Report, Project Deliverable I3-D3, REWERSE (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P.F., Boley, H., Tabet, S., Grosof, B., Dean, M.: SWRL: A Semantic Web Rule Language Combining OWL and RuleML. W3C Member Submission (May 21, 2004),
  15. 15.
    Krötzsch, M., Rudolph, S., Hitzler, P.: ELP: Tractable Rules for OWL 2. In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference on The Semantic Web (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W3C: OWL 2 RL. W3C Recommendation (October 27, 2009)
  17. 17.
    Boley, H.: Are Your Rules Online? Four Web Rule Essentials. In: Paschke, A., Biletskiy, Y. (eds.) RuleML 2007. LNCS, vol. 4824, pp. 7–24. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    de Bruijn, J.: RIF RDF and OWL Compatibility. W3C Recommendation (June 22, 2010),
  19. 19.
    Polleres, A., Boley, H., Kifer, M.: RIF Datatypes and Built-Ins 1.0. W3C Recommendation (June 22, 2010),
  20. 20.
    Hawke, S.: RIF In RDF. W3C Working Draft (June 22, 2010),
  21. 21.
    de Sainte Marie, C., Hallmark, G., Paschke, A.: RIF Production Rule Dialect. W3C Recommendation (June 22, 2010),
  22. 22.
    Boley, H., Kifer, M.: RIF Basic Logic Dialect. W3C Recommendation (June 22, 2010),
  23. 23.
    Grosof, B.N.: Representing E-Commerce Rules Via Situated Courteous Logic Programs in RuleML. J. of Electronic Commerce Research & Applications (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lassila, O., McGuinness, D.L.: The Role of Frame-Based Representation on the Semantic Web. J. of Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (2001)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noy, N., Rector, A.: Defining N-ary Relations on the Semantic Web. W3C Working Group Note (April 12, 2006),
  26. 26.
    Beckett, D., Berners-Lee, T.: Turtle - Terse RDF Triple Language. W3C Team Submission (March 28, 2011),
  27. 27.
    Yang, G., Kifer, M.: Reasoning about Anonymous Resources and Meta Statements on the Semantic Web. Data Semantics I (2003)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boley, H., Kifer, M., Ptrnjan, P.L., Polleres, A.: Rule Interchange on the Web. In: Antoniou, G., Aßmann, U., Baroglio, C., Decker, S., Henze, N., Patranjan, P.-L., Tolksdorf, R. (eds.) Reasoning Web. LNCS, vol. 4636, pp. 269–309. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schenk, S., Staab, S.: Networked Graphs: a Declarative Mechanism for SPARQL Rules, SPARQL views and RDF Data Integration on the Web. In: Proc. of the 17th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khandelwal, A.: AIR to RIF-PRD (2011),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankesh Khandelwal
    • 1
  • Ian Jacobi
    • 2
  • Lalana Kagal
    • 2
  1. 1.Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteUSA
  2. 2.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUSA

Personalised recommendations