PGPR for Protection of Plant Health Under Saline Conditions

  • Naveen K. Arora
  • Sakshi Tewari
  • Sachin Singh
  • Nand Lal
  • Dinesh K. Maheshwari
Chapter

Abstract

The economy of many countries relies on agriculture. Salinity is one of the major constraints that limit crop productivity, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The development of salt-tolerant crops is not an easy and economical approach for sustainable agriculture, whereas microbial inoculation to alleviate salt tolerance is a better option because it minimizes production costs and environmental hazards. The aim of the present review is to point out the status of salinization and constraints related with it, and to draw the focus on future research strategies for the development of better inoculants in saline-affected regions, particularly in context to the developing countries.

Keywords

Salt Stress Ethylene Production Compatible Solute Glycine Betaine Glycine Betaine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, and Council of Science and Technology, Lucknow, India. Authors are grateful to Vice Chancellor, BBA University, Lucknow, India for their support.

References

  1. Abolfazl A, Zabihi RH, Movafegh S, Hossein AAM (2009) The efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of two varieties of wheat in salinity condition. Am Eurasian J Sustain Agric 3(4):824–828Google Scholar
  2. Adesemoye AO, Torbert HA, Kloepper JW (2008) Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system. Can J Microbiol 54:876–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apse MP, Blumwald E (2002) Engineering salt tolerance in plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 3:146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arora NK, Singhal V, Maheshwari DK (2006) Salinity-induced accumulation of poly-β- hydroxyl butyrate in rhizobia indicating its role in cell protection. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:603–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arora NK, Khare E, Verma A (2007) Biofertilizer technology for economical and environmentally viable agriculture production. Kurukshetra J Rural Dev 55(4):20–24Google Scholar
  6. Arora NK, Khare E, Maheshwari DK (2010) PGPR: constraints in bioformulation, commercialization and future strategies. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. Springer, DorderechtGoogle Scholar
  7. Asada K (2000) The Water-Water cycle as alternative photon and electron sinks. Philos Trans R Soc 355:1419–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashraf M, Berge SH, Mahmood OT (2004) Inoculating wheat seedling with exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria restricts sodium uptake and stimulates plant growth under salt stress. Biol Fertil Soils 40:157–162Google Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Athar HR, Harris PJC, Kwon TR (2008) Some perspective strategies for improving crop tolerance. Adv Agron 97:45–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldani JL, Reis VM, Baldani VLD, Dobereiner J (2000) A brief story of nitrogen fixation in sugarcane – reasons for success in Brazil. Funct Plant Biol 29:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bashan Y, Holguin G (1997) Azospirillum–plant relationships: environmental and physiological advances. Can J Microbiol 43:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernard T, Jebbar M, Rassouli Y, Himdi KS, Hamelin J, Blanco C (1993) Ectoine accumulation and osmotic regulation in Brevibacterium linens. J Gen Microbiol 139:129–138Google Scholar
  13. Bernstein L, Francois LE, Clark RA (1974) Interactive effects of salinity and fertility on yields of grains and vegetables. Agron J 66:412–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bezzate S, Aymerich S, Chambert R, Czarnes S, Berge O, Heulin T (2000) Disruption of the Paenibacillus polymyxa levansucrase gene impairs its ability to aggregate soil in the wheat rhizosphere. Environ Microbiol 2(3):333–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bor M, Ozdemir F, Turkan I (2003) The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. and wild beet Beta maritime L. Plant Sci 164:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaiharn M, Lumyong S (2009) Phosphate solubilization potential and stress tolerance of rhizobacteria from rice soil in Northern Thailand. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheeseman JM (1988) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Physiol 87:57–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng Z, Park E, Glick BR (2007) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase from Pseudomonas putida UW4 facilitates the growth of canola in the presence of salt. Can J Microbiol 53(7):912–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Csonka LN, Hanson AD (1991) Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol 45:569–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Del Rio LA, Corpas FJ, Sandalio LM, Palma JM, Barroso JB (2003) Plant peroxisomes, reactive oxygen metabolism and nitric oxide. IUBMB Life 55(2):71–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drew MC, Hole PS, Picchioni GA (1990) Inhibition by NaCl of net CO2 fixation and yield of cucumber. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 115:472–477Google Scholar
  22. Estevez J, Dardanelli MS, Megias M, Rodriguez-Navarro DN (2009) Symbiotic performance of common bean and soybean co inoculated with rhizobia and Chryseobacterium balustinum Aur9 under moderate saline conditions. Symbiosis 49:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fallik E, Sarig S, Okon Y (1994) Morphology and physiology of plant roots associated with Azospirillum. In: Okon Y (ed) Azospirillum plant associations. CRC, London, pp 77–86Google Scholar
  24. Flowers T (2004) Improving crop salt tolerance. J Exp Bot 55:307–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Galinski EA, Truper HG (1994) Microbial behavior in salt-stressed ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 15:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Garg AK, Kim JK, Owens TG, Ranwala AP, Do Choi Y, Kochian LV, Wu RJ (2002) Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 99(25):15898–15903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gravel V, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2007) Growth stimulation and fruit yield improvement of greenhouse tomato plants by inoculation with Pseudomonas putida or Trichoderma atroviride: Possible role of indole acetic acid (IAA). Soil Biol Biochem 39:1968–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gutierrez-Manero FJ, Probanza A, Ramos B, Colon-Flores JJ, Lucas-Garcia JA (2003) Effects of culture filtrates of rhizobacteria isolated from wild lupine on germination, growth, and biological nitrogen fixation of lupine seedlings. J Plant Nutr 26:1101–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Han HS, Lee KD (2005a) Physiological responses of soybean-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum with PGPR in saline soil conditions. Res J Agric Biol Sci 1(3):216–221Google Scholar
  31. Han HS, Lee KD (2005b) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of lettuce under soil salinity. Res J Agric Biol Sci 1:210–215Google Scholar
  32. Hartmond U, Schaesberg NV, Graham JH, Syverten JP (1987) Salinity and flooding stress effects on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal citrus rootstock seedlings. Plant Soil 104:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Heijnen CE, Hok-A-Hin CH, Van Veen JA (1992) Improvements to the use of bentonite clay as a protective agent, increasing survival levels of bacteria introduced into soil. Soil Biol Biochem 24:533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ISAAA (2006) International service for the Acquisiton of Agri- biotech Application. Global status of commercialization biotech/GM cropsGoogle Scholar
  35. Jia YJ, Kakuta Y, Sugawara M, Igarashi T, Oki N, Kisaki M, Shoji T, Kanetuna Y, Horita T, Matsui H, Honma M (1999) Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63:542–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jonathan EV, Jeffrey KI, Clarke S (1998) Mutations in the Escherichia coli surE gene increase isoaspartyl accumulation in a strain lacking the pcm repair methyltransferase but suppress stress-survival phenotypes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 167:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kefu Z, Munns R, King RW (1991) Abscisic acid levels in NaCl-treated barley, cotton, and saltbush. Aust J Plant Physiol 18:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kempf B, Bremer E (1998) Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Arch Microbiol 170:319–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan MH, Panda SK (2008) Alterations in root lipid peroxidation and antioxidative responses in two rice cultivars under NaCl-salinity stress. Acta Physiol Plant 30:89–91Google Scholar
  40. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1978) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In: IV International conference on plant pathogenic bacteria, vol 2. Station de Pathologie Vegetale et Phytobacteriologie, INRA, Angers, France, pp 879–882Google Scholar
  41. Kumar H, Arora NK, Kumar V, Maheshwari DK (1999) Isolation, characterization and selection of salt tolerant Rhizobia nodulating Acacia catechu and A. nilotica. Symbiosis 26:279–288Google Scholar
  42. Lee DH, Lee CB (2000) Chilling stress-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of cucumber: in gel enzyme activity assays. Plant Sci 159:75–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu J, Ishitani M, Halfter U, Kim CS, Zhu JK (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:3730–3734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mashhady AS, Salem SH, Barakh FN, Heggo AM (1998) Effect of Salinity on survival and symbiotic performance between Rhizobium meliloti and Medicago sativa in Saudi Arabian soil. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 12:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller KJ, Wood JM (1996) Osmoadaptation by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 50:101–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nautiyal CS (1999) An efficient microbiological growth medium for screening phosphate-solubilizing microorganism. FEMS Microbiol Lett 29:221–229Google Scholar
  49. Nobbe F, Hiltner L (1896) Inoculation of the soil for cultivating leguminous plants. U.S. Patent 570 813Google Scholar
  50. Patten CL, Glick BR (2002) Role of Pseudomonas putida indole acetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3795–3801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paul D, Dineshkumar N, Nair S (2006) Proteomics of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens MSP-393, subjected to salt shock. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 22(4):369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pichereau V, Pocard JA, Hamelin J, Blanco C, Bernard T (1998) Differential effects of dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfonioacetate, and other S-methylated compounds on the growth of Sinorhizobium meliloti at low and high osmolarities. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1420–1429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Rengasam P (2002) Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dryland farming in Australian sodic soils: an overview. Aust J Exp Agric 42:351–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. United States Salinity Lab, Riverside, CAGoogle Scholar
  55. Roberson EB, Firestone MK (1992) Relationship between desiccation and exopolysaccharide production in a soil Pseudomonas sp. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1284–1291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ross IL, Alami Y, Harvey Achouak PRW, Ryder MH (2000) Genetic diversity and biological control activity of novel species of closely related pseudomonads isolated from wheat field soils in South Australia. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1609–1616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Collados C, Barea JM, Azcón R (2001) Cloning of cDNAs encoding SODs from lettuce plants which show differential regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and by drought stress. J Exp Bot 52:2241–2242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Saravanakumar D, Samiyappan R (2007) ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas xuorescens mediated saline resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogea) plants. J Appl Microbiol 102:1283–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shen SH, Matsubae M, Takao T (2002) A proteomic analysis of leaf sheaths from rice. J Biochem 132:613–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Sheveleva E, Chmara W, Bohnert HJ, Jensen RC (1997) Increased salt and drought tolerance by D-ononitol production in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. Plant Physiol 115:1211–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith RS (1992) Legume inoculant formulation and application. Can J Microbiol 38:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith Pilon EAH, Terry N, Sears T, Van Dun K (1999) Abiotic stress is the major limiting factor of plant growth and crop yield. Plant Physiol Biochem 37(4):313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stepien P, Klobus G (2005) Antioxidant defence in the leaves of C3 and C4 plants under salinity stress. Physiol Plant 125:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Talibart R, Jebbar M, Gouffi K, Pichereau V, Gouesbet G, Blanco C, Bernard T, Pocard JA (1997) Transient accumulation of glycine betaine and dynamics of endogenous osmolytes in salt-stressed cultures of Sinorhizobium meliloti. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4657–4663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Tarczynski MC, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1992) Expression of a bacterial mtID gene in transgenic tobacco leads to production and accumulation of mannitol. Proc Natl Acad Sci 89:2600–2604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tattini M, Gucci R, Coradeschi MA, Ponzio C, Everard JD (1995) Growth, gas exchange and ion content in Olea europaea plants during salinity stress and subsequent relief. Physiol Plant 95:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thakuria D, Talukdar NC, Goswami C, Hazarika S, Boro RC, Khan MR (2004) Characterization and screening of bacteria from rhizosphere of rice grown in acidic soils of Assam. Curr Sci 86:978–985Google Scholar
  68. Vijayan K, Chakraborti SP, Ercisli S, Ghosh PD (2008) NaCl-induced morpho-biochemical and anatomical changes in mulberry (Morus sp.). Plant Growth Regul 56:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vivas A, Marulanda A, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Barea JM, Azcon R (2003) Influence of a Bacillus sp. on physiological activities of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and on plant responses to PEG induced drought stress. Mycorrhiza 13:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. von Bodman SB, Domier LL, Farrand SK (1995) Expression of multiple eukaryotic genes from single promoter in Nicotiana. Biotechnology 13:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Whipps JM (1990) Carbon utilization. In: Lynch JM (ed) The rhizosphere. Wiley, Chichester, pp 59–97Google Scholar
  72. Whipps JM (2001) Microbial interactions and biocontrol in the rhizosphere. J Exp Bot 52:487–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Wullstein LH (1989) Evaluation and significance of associative dinitrogen fixation for arid soil rehabilitation. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 3:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yancey PH, Clark ME, Hand SC, Bowlus RD, Somero GN (1982) Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science 217:1214–1222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Young CC, Rekha PD, Lai WA, Arun AB (2006) Encapsulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria in alginate beads enriched with humic acid. Biotechnol Bioeng 95:76–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zahran HH (1999) Rhizobium–Legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:968–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Zahran HH, Rasanen LA, Karsisto M, Lindstrom K (1994) Alteration of lipopolysaccharide and protein profiles in SDS PAGE of rhizobia by osmotic and heat stress. World J Microbiol 10:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zahran HH, Ahmed MS, Afkar EA (1995) Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing moderate halophilic bacteria from saline soils of Egypt. J Basic Microbiol 35:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naveen K. Arora
    • 1
  • Sakshi Tewari
    • 1
  • Sachin Singh
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nand Lal
    • 2
    • 3
  • Dinesh K. Maheshwari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Microbiology, School of Environmental ScienceBBA UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences and BiotechnologyCSJM UniversityKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Life ScienceCSJM UniversityKanpurIndia
  4. 4.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyGurukul Kangri UniversityHaridwarIndia

Personalised recommendations