Towards Responsible Hydropower Development through Contentious Multi-stakeholder Negotiations: The Case of India

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores reforms in environmental and resettlement policies in India and the influence of domestic and external actors on the reform process. It also analyses the ways in which environment and resettlement policies have been implemented in a number of hydropower projects. At macro level, the study begins by describing the multilevel processes that govern dam decision-making. It then considers changes regarding environmental clearance and resettlement, and the role which state and non-state actors played in the last three decades. At project level the analysis focuses on how state and non-state actors influence decision-making on the introduction of superior environmental and social standards through changes in policies and laws. The dam projects selected are the Allain Duhangan Project, the Lower Subansiri Project and the Dibang Multipurpose Project. The study argues that, at macro level, it is civil society which has been the major driver of change in the area of resettlement over the last three decades. In the environment arena the changes are the outcome of competing demands from civil society and growth-oriented ministries and departments of the Government of India. At project level, superior social and environmental standards are primarily driven by social movements. International actors like the International Finance Corporation also catalyse the reform process.

Keywords

Civil Society Environmental Impact Assessment Civil Society Organisation Public Hearing Project Developer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author acknowledges the generous support of International Postgraduate Studies in Water Technologies (IPSWaT) for supporting the field research for this study. The author would like to thank Parthojyoti Das, Keshab Chatradhar, Tony Mikrows and Sunder Mahant for their help during the fieldwork. The author would also like to thank the many resource persons in India, who have enormously helped the author in developing a better understanding of environmental governance in India. Author acknowledges the help of Saptarshi Dey in creating a map depicting the study locations.The author would also like to thank Ramaswamy R. Iyer and Peter Mollinga for their comments on an earlier extended version of this chapter.

References

  1. AASU (All Assam Student Union) (2008) Pratwabhan 6th annual Gogamukh conference by All Assam Student Union Dhemaji District, 19–21 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  2. ADHPL (Allain Duhangan Hydroelectric Project Ltd.) (2004) Affidavit of Allain Duhangan Hydroelectric Project, 7 May 2004Google Scholar
  3. Baruah S (2012) Whose river is it anyway? Political economy of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas. Economic and Political Weekly 47(29):41–52, 21 July 2012Google Scholar
  4. Borpujari P (2012) Damning the dam protestors. http://priyanka-borpujari.blogspot.in/2012/05/damning-dam-protesters.html. Accessed 1 Aug 2012
  5. Cernea MM (2006) Resettlement management. Denying or confronting risks. In: Mathur HM (ed) Managing resettlement in India. Approaches, issues, experiences. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. Chatradhar KC (2009) Lower Subansiri: downstream impact chronology. Unpublished documentGoogle Scholar
  7. Civil Writ Petition (2007) Himachal Pradesh High Court CWP 1421 of 2007, 11 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  8. Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (2004) Assessment report. Complaint regarding Allain Duhangan Hydropower Project Himachal Pradesh. India office of the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, March 2004Google Scholar
  9. Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (2006) Progress report. Complaint regarding the Allain Duhangan Hydropower Project Himachal Pradesh. India office of the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, 28 August 2006Google Scholar
  10. Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (2008) Allain Duhangan Hydro Power Project. India Complaint Conclusion Report Office of the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, March 2008Google Scholar
  11. Correspondent (2004) Clearance to hydel project opposed. Tribune News Service, 18 May 2004Google Scholar
  12. D’Monte D (1986) A dam too far. Economic and Political Weekly 19(47), 24 Nov 1986Google Scholar
  13. Dwivedi R (2006) Conflict and collective action: the Sardar Sarovar Project in India. Routledge, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  14. EPW Correspondent (1972a) Environmental planning. What a committee can’t do. Economic and Political Weekly 7(18), 29 April 1972Google Scholar
  15. EPW Correspondent (1972b) Development and environment. Economic and Political Weekly 7(25), 17 June 1972Google Scholar
  16. EPW Editorial (1987) Format for environment. Economic and Political Weekly 23(18), 2 May 1987Google Scholar
  17. Fernandes W (2004) Rehabilitation policy for the displaced. Economic and Political Weekly 39(12):1191–1193, 20 MarchGoogle Scholar
  18. Fernandes W (2008) The 2006 rehabilitation draft: more of the same?. Mahanirban Calcutta Research Group, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  19. Fernandes W, Paranjpye V (eds) (1997) Rehabilitation policy and law in India: a right to livelihood. Indian Social Institute, Pune. Econet, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  20. Fox JA, Brown LD (eds) (1998) The struggle for accountability: the world. NGOs and grassroots movements. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghosh P (2008) Public hearing: a mere formality? Livemint.com. Wall Street J. http://www.livemint.com/2008/02/11003825/Public-hearing-a-mere-formali.html. Accessed 26 July 2010
  22. GoI (Government of India) Ministry of Water Resources (2001) Letter 2/WCD/2001/DT (PR) III (2)Google Scholar
  23. GoI (Government of India) Central Electricity Authority (2008) Status of hydro electric potential development CEA, August 2008. http://www.cea.nic.in/hydro/Status%20of%20Hydroelectric%20Potential%20Development.pdf. Accessed 18 Sept 2008
  24. GoI (Government of India) Ministry of Finance (2008) Expert group to examine the schemes of statutory clearances for industrial and infrastructure projects in India, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance. http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/Report%20Ministry%20of%20Finance.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept 2009
  25. Guha R (2007) India after Gandhi. The history of the world’s largest democracy. Picador Publications, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  26. International Rivers (2004a) http://www.internationalrivers.org/en/node/893. Accessed 2 Sept 2009
  27. Iyer RR (2003) Water perspectives issues concerns. Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. Iyer RR (2007) Towards a just displacement and rehabilitation policy. Economic and Political Weekly 42(30):3103–3107, 29 July 2007Google Scholar
  29. Khagram S (2004) Dams and development. Transnational struggles for water and power. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Klingensmith D (2007) One valley and a thousand. Dams nationalism and development. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. Maudgal S (1991) Environmental impacts of water resources development projects. Central Board of Irrigation and Power: environmental impact assessment for water resources projects, Proceedings of regional workshops. Ministry of Environment and Forests, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  32. McCully P (2001) The use of a trilateral network: an activists’ perspective on the formation of the World Commission on Dams. Am Univ Int Law Rev 16(6):1453–1475Google Scholar
  33. Menon M, Kohli K (2005) Large dams for hydropower in North East India. A dossier. Kalpavriksh and South Asia Network of Dams Rivers and People, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  34. Menon M (2007) Kohli K (2007) Environmental decision-making: whose agenda? Economic and Political Weekly 42(26):30Google Scholar
  35. Menon M, Kohli K (2008) Reengineering the legal and policy regimes on environment. Economic and Political Weekly 43(23):7Google Scholar
  36. Menon M, Kohli K (2009) From impact assessment to clearance manufacture. Economic and Political Weekly XLIV 28:20–23, 30 June 2009Google Scholar
  37. Mohan D (1991) Need for environmental impact assessment. Central Board of Irrigation and Power: environmental impact assessment for water resources projects, Proceedings of regional workshops, Ministry of Environment and Forests, pp 16–17, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  38. Mohanty B (2005) Displacement and rehabilitation of tribals. Economic and Political Weekly 40(13):1318–1320, 26 March 2005Google Scholar
  39. Mukherjee A (2002) Cabinet secy for implementing panel report on investments. Business Line, 12 Dec 2001Google Scholar
  40. Nandimath OV (2009) Oxford handbook of environmental decision making in India: an EIA model. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  41. National Productivity Council (2010.) Executive summary of EIA and EMP of Dibang Multipurpose Project. http://envfor.nic.in/divisions/iass/Executive%20Summary_English.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept 2009
  42. NCIWRD (National Commission for Integrated Water Resource Development) (1999) Integrated water resource development: a plan for action. Report of the National Commission for Integrated Water Resource Development (NCIWRD) IGoogle Scholar
  43. NHPC (National Hydroelectric Power Corporation) Ltd (2002) Executive summary of Subansiri lower hydroelectric project Arunachal Pradesh and Assam (8 × 250 MW)Google Scholar
  44. Rangacheri R et al (2000) Large dams: India’s experience. A WCD case study prepared for World Commission of Dams. Cape Town, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  45. Roy A (1999) The greater common good. India Book Distributor, BombayGoogle Scholar
  46. Roy D (2008) Hydropower in Uttarakhand: is ‘development’ the real objective? Economic and Political Weekly 43(41):19, 11 Oct 2008Google Scholar
  47. Sachs I (1971) Environmental quality management and development planning. Economic and Political Weekly 6(30), 6 Nov 1971Google Scholar
  48. Saldanha LF et al (2007) Green tapism. A review of the Environmental Impact Notification 2006. Environment Support Group, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  49. Sengupta N (2000) A brief review. In: Rangachari R et al (2000) Large dams: India’s experience. A WCD case study prepared for World Commission of Dams. Cape Town, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  50. Shah Z, Kumar MD (2008) In the midst of the large dam controversy: objectives, criteria for assessing large water storages in the developing world. Water Res Manage 22(12):1799–1824. doi: 10.1007/s11269_008_9254_8 Google Scholar
  51. Singh S (2006) Displacement and rehabilitation. A comparison of two policy drafts. Economic and Political Weekly 41(52):5307–5309, 30 December 2006Google Scholar
  52. TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) (2006) National energy map of India: technology vision 2030. The Energy and Resources Institute and Office of the Principal Scientific Advisor Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  53. Vagholikar N, Ahmed MF (2003) Tracking a hydel project. The story of lower Subansiri. The Ecologist Asia (11)1:25–32, January–March 2003Google Scholar
  54. Veracity (2008) Protest over Dibang project hits the media around the globe: is environmental clearance a mere formality? Veracity, 10 February 2008Google Scholar
  55. WCD (World Commission of Dams) (2000) Dams and development. A new framework for decision making. EarthScan publications Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. Wood JR (2007) The politics of water resource development in India: the Narmada dams controversy. Sage Publications Pvt Ltd, New DehliGoogle Scholar
  57. World Bank (2004) Implementation completion report (IDA 29300) No. 28942. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/06/14/000012009_20050614163544/Rendered/PDF/289420rev.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept. 2009

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Council on Energy Environment and WaterNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations